NIBBĀNA - PARINIBBĀNA
All the suttas below have parallels in Chinese, Sanskrit and/or Tibetan.
He always sleeps well,
the Brahmin who has attained nibbāna,
cooled off, without acquisitions,
not tainted by sensual pleasures.
Sabbadā ve sukhaṃ seti,
Yo na limpati kāmesu,
Advancing in successive steps,
those wise ones attain nibbāna.
I understand Nibbāna, and the path and way leading to Nibbāna. And I also understand how one who has entered this path will, by realizing for himself with direct knowledge, here and now enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.
“First, Susīma,comes knowledge of the stability of the Dhamma, afterwards knowledge of Nibbāna.”
“Pubbe kho, susima, dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇaṃ, pacchā nibbāne ñāṇan”ti.
Having nothing, clinging to no thing: That is the island, there is no other.
That's nibbāna, I tell you, the total ending of aging &death.
Akiñcanaṃ anādānaṃ, etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ;
Nibbānaṃ iti naṃ brūmi, jarāmaccuparikkhayaṃ.
The world is fettered by delight,
by eliciting (construing).
By completely giving up craving
there is what is called Nibbāna.
In that case, be ardent
Astute (prudent) & mindful right here.
Then, having heard my pronouncement,
train for your own nibbāna.
Tena hātappaṃ karohi
Idheva nipako sato,
Ito sutvāna nigghosaṃ
Here, Hemaka, with regard to things that are dear — seen, heard,sensed, & cognized —
there is: the dispelling of passion & desire, the undying state of nibbāna.
Those knowing this, mindful, fully unbound in the here & now, are forever calmed,
have crossed over beyond entanglement in the world.
Idha diṭṭhasutamutaviññātesu, piyarūpesu hemaka;
Etadaññāya ye satā, diṭṭhadhammābhinibbutā;
Upasantā ca te sadā, tiṇṇā loke visattikanti.
Bhante, could a bhikkhu obtain such a state of concentration that (1) he would have no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to this conscious body; (2) he would have no I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit in regard to all external objects; and (3) he would enter and dwell in that liberation of mind, liberation by wisdom, through which there is no more I-making, mine-making, and underlying tendency to conceit for one who enters and dwells in it?”
“He could, Ānanda.”
“Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu thinks thus: ‘This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishing of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving,dispassion, cessation, nibbāna.’
By being liberated, the mind is steady; by being steady, it is content;by being content, he is not agitated. Being unagitated, he personally attains Nibbāna. He understands: ‘Destroyed is birth, the holy lifehas been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this state of being.’
Through the abandoning of craving is there said to be nibbāna.
Taṇhāyavippahānena, nibbānaṃ iti vuccati”.
Having nothing, no attachment,
this is the island with nothing beyond,
this is called Nibbāna,
I say, the end of old age and death.
etaṃ dīpaṃ anāparaṃ;
Nibbānaṃ iti naṃ brūmi,
Both this world and the world beyond
Have been revealed by him who knows:
What's within the reach of Mara,
And also what's beyond his reach.
Fully knowing all of the world,
The wise one, by awakening,
Has opened the door to non-death,
Which safely reaches nibbana.
The mindful and discerning one,
Who in the Dhamma plead his faith;
By his will to hear that Dhamma
Wins the wisdom of Nibbana.
If through revulsion towards aging-and-death, through its fading away and cessation, a bhikkhu is liberated by nonclinging, he can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbāna in this very life.
If through revulsion towards ignorance, throughits fading away and cessation, a bhikkhu is liberated by nonclinging, he can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbāna in this very life.
Not by means of slack endeavour,
Not by means of feeble effort,
Is this Nibbāna to be achieved,
Release from all suffering.
“Venerable sir, for what purpose is nibbāna?”
“Rādha, it is not possible to answer that question. Nibbāna is the final end. The holy life is lived to reach nibbāna and it is the end.”
“Nibbānaṃ pana, bhante, kimatthiyan”ti?
“Accayāsi, rādha, pañhaṃ, nāsakkhi pañhassa pariyantaṃ gahetuṃ. Nibbānogadhañhi, rādha, brahmacariyaṃ vussati, nibbānaparāyanaṃ nibbānapariyosānan”ti.
... for the ending of craving, Radha, is nibbāna.
The way that is suitable for attaining nibbāna:
“You have come to a place where there are many roots of trees
Arouse interest for nibbāna, disciple of Gotama concentrate
Do not be negligent. What is the use of talking all the time?” (Ananda to a deity)
With the cessation of sensory consciousness of one released in the stopping of craving, the liberation of mind of one released in the stopping of craving, is like the unbinding of a flame.
Viññāṇassa nirodhena, taṇhākkhayavimuttino; pajjotasseva nibbānaṃ, vimokkho hoti cetaso”ti.
Also, in SN 12.51 Buddha talks about "the fading away of ignorance and the arising of true knowledge" that preclude any more formations. Sankhara ( the second link of paticcasamuppada) is extinguished. This is Parinibbana for Buddha. A stage where ignorance (Avijja) is at such a low level, that there is no more the production of determinations (formations); but just a remnant of existing fabrications: "...his bodily fabrications have ceased & subsided, his verbal fabrications have ceased & subsided, his mental fabrications have ceased & subsided, his vitalityis not exhausted, his heat has not subsided, & his facultiesare exceptionally clear (Āyu aparikkhīṇo. Usmāavūpasantā. Indriyāni vippasannāni). ..." (MN43).
Parinibbana seems to be the veritably unconditioned. Ignorance is at it's lowest level here, and there is no more conditioning.
Only SN 45.7 covers the nibbāna element (nibbānadhāthu).
It also covers the deathless (amata - अमृत amṛta >> the imperishable (RV. VS.) - the world of immortality , heaven , eternity (RV. VS. AV. ) - the collective body of immortals (RV.) - .
Nibbāna is the removal (from one's self) [vinayo], of raga dosa, and moha. (https://justpaste.it/15dxx).This, bhikkhu, is a designation for the element of Nibbāna:
the removal of lust, the removal of hatred, the removal of delusion. The destruction of the taints is spoken of in that way.
nibbānadhātuyā kho etaṃ, bhikkhu, adhivacanaṃ:
‘rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo’ti. āsavānaṃ khayo tena vuccatī'ti.
The decrease of lust, the decrease of hatred, the decrease of delusion: this is called the Deathless. This Noble Eightfold Path is the path leading to the Deathless.
rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo — idaṃ vuccati amataṃ. ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo amatagāmimaggo.
Amata is about their decrease (khayo).
Note that Khaya can have both the meaning of "decrease", or "destruction".
If we refer to the pre-Buddhist's Vedic texts:
1. Vinaya (fr．vi + √नी nī), has the meaning of "wishing to exclude from" (AitBr.), and "remove from one's self" (AV. - TĀr. - MBh.)
2. Khaya (from Sk．√क्षी kṣī) means
- "to be diminished, to decrease" (RV. - AV. - ŚBr. - MBh.), or
- or "to destroy, ruin , make an end of" (RV. AV. MBh.)
MN1 confirms this progression:
It is through the decrease of raga dosa, and moha, that one enters the deathless state. It is through the complete removal from one's self of raga dosa, and moha - and (through) the destruction of the taints (craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, and ignorance), that one attains nibbāna.Knowing directly all the world,
The Enlightened One who understands
Opened the door to the deathless state
By which the safety of Nibbāna may be reached;
Sabbaṃ lokaṃ abhiññāya,
It is through the deathless state, that nibbāna can be reached.
What does "sabbaṃ lokaṃ abhiññāya" ("Knowing directly all the world") really means?The wise one, by awakening,
Has opened the door to non-death,
Which safely reaches nibbana.
How does the deathless fit into this?
There was indeed, in Buddha's time, the belief that there was a part of the "world" (as per Buddhist definition of "world" - SN 35.82 & SN 12.44), that was devoid of time (eternal) .
I would like to reconsider the meaning of khaya in SN 43.12; which has almost everyone believe that asankhata (the unconditioned,) means nibbāna.
Instead, we can see that asankhata is closer to the deathless than to nibbāna.
Having khaya taking the meaning of "to be diminished, to decrease" (RV. - AV. - ŚBr. - MBh.) - intead of "to destroy, ruin , make an end of" (RV. AV. MBh.), makes quite a significant difference. (once again, looking at the roots of words, in the pre-Buddhist Vedic texts).
What is the rationale behind that?
The fact that one of the path leading to asankhata (the unconditioned,) is the four foundation of mindfulness (SN 43.XX) - and what is said in SN 47.41:
The deathless is attainable through asankhata.“Bhikkhus, fetch distinctively with your minds well established in the four establishments of mindfulness. Do not let the deathless be lost on you.
“Catūsu, bhikkhave, satipaṭṭhānesu suppatiṭṭhitacittā viharatha. Mā vo amataṃ panassa.
So, up to here, we have: Asankhata (unconditioned) >> Amata (the deathless) >> Nibbāna
How Paribanna is defined is in SN 12.51 - https://justpaste.it/p8p3
Again, if one refers to the meaning of "pari-" in pre-Buddhist Vedic texts (as well as in the PTS, where it also means "quite"), one finds that pari- means "about" (in space and time) (RV. AV.), or "in the direction of" , "towards" (ib.).
Indeed, the meaning of parinibbāna seems to be "towards" nibbāna - And not "beyond" nibbāna, as it is usually interpreted.
Could the progression be:
Asankhata >> Amata >> Parinibānna >> Nibbāna ?
And further more:
Asankhata >> Amata >> Parinibānna >> Nibbāna >> Avyakata (undeclared - SN 44)
- completely calmed，at peace，at rest.
Nibbuta >> Sk. निर्वृत nirvṛta [pp. nirvṛ]
- at rest (MBh.)
निर्वृ nirvṛ [nir (nis)-√vṛ]
√ वृ vṛ
(Nis - not)
- obstructed or hindered (RV. MBh. AV.)
- hinder , restrain (RV. AV.)
- obstruct (RV.)
- to cover , conceal , hide , keep back , hold captive (RV.)
- to close (a door) (AitBr.)
It seems prevalent that most people confound nir + √vā (Nibbāna), with nir(nis) + √vṛ (nibbuta).
This seems to be quite a mess, particularly as far as dictionaries are concerned.