SN 54.13

Ānāpānasati

(Acquisition [of Citta] through Breathing)

Here, "sati" does not come from the Vedic smṛti, meaning "thinking upon", but from sati सति = साति sāti = gaining , obtaining , acquisition (RV.)

Obtention (sati) of the placement (samādhi) [in Citta], through breathing (ānāpāna) [viz. Ānāpānasatisamādhi], when developed and cultivated, fulfils the four ["ways"] to access the obtention [of Citta]. The four ["ways"] to access the obtention [of Citta], when developed and cultivated, fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfil true knowledge and liberation.

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Satipaṭṭhānā (sati-paṭṭhānā) - प्रस्थान prasthāna:  a way to attain (any object) , method , system - KātyŚr. 

 

Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

"Venerable sir, is there one (elaborated) thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four (elaborated) things? And four (elaborated) things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil (brings to completion) seven (elaborated) things? And seven (elaborated) things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two (elaborated) things?"

 

Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

"atthi nu kho bhante, eko dhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro dhamme paripūreti. Cattāro dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta dhamme paripūrenti. Satta dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā dve dhamme paripūrentī"ti.

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bahulīkata : [pp . of bahulīkaroti] took up seriously; increased, practised frequently. bahulīkaroti : [bahula + ī + kar + o] takes up seriously; increases . bahula : [adj . ] abundant; frequent . bahula karoti: make abundant, frequent.

"There is, Ananda, one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things."

 

"Atthi kho ānanda, eko dhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro dhamme paripūreti. Cattāro dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā sattadhamme paripūrenti. Sattadhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā dve dhamme paripūrenti"ti.

"But, venerable sir, what is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and the four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and the seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things? "

 

"Katamo pana bhante, eko dhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro dhamme paripūreti, cattāro dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta dhamme paripūrenti. Satta dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā dve dhamme paripūrentī"ti.

"Obtention of the placement [in Citta], through breathing, Ananda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils the four ["ways"] to access the obtention [of Citta]. The four ["ways"] to access the obtention [of Citta], when developed and cultivated, fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfil true knowledge and liberation.

 

Ānāpānasatisamādhi kho ānanda, eko dhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti. Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti. Satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulikatā vijjāvimuttiṃ paripūrenti.

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Paripūrenti: causative form of paripūrati [pari-√ पॄ pṝ = bring up, fulfill]. Each process is the cause that helps bring up and fulfill the next one.

 

Four ways to access/attain the obtention [of Citta].

 

Cattāro Satipaṭṭhānā

 प्रस्थान prasthāna:  a way to attain (any object) , method , system - KātyŚr. 

 

Discerning, and training to be sensitive to the body.
(Body – Kāya)

"How, Ananda, is the obtention (sati) of the placement (samādhi) [near/in Citta], through breathing, developed and cultivated, so that it fulfils the four ["ways"] to access the obtention [of Citta], ?

 

Kathaṃ bhāvito ca ānanda, ānāpānasatisamādhi kathaṃ bahulīkato cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti:

Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and intending towards the beginning (viz. the first step) , and having looked after the obtention (sati) [of Citta], just mindful (this time from the Vedic smṛti = thinking upon (the breath) - ChUp. MBh.), he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

 

Idhānanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato'va assasati. Sato passasati.

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Paṇidhāya

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Pali: Optative of paṇidahati [pa+ni+dhā] - direct, intend.

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Parimukhaṃ

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Sanskrit: परि pari - towards , to (RV. AV.) मुख mukha - introduction , commencement , beginning (Br. MBh.)

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Upaṭṭhapetvā

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Pali: Absolutive of upaṭṭhahati. Upaṭṭhahati,& °ṭṭhāti [upa + sthā] - look after.

Discerning (pajānāti):

 

[1] Breathing in long, he discerns, 'I am breathing in long';

 

Dīghaṃ vā assasanto dīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti.

or breathing out long, he discerns, 'I am breathing out long.'

 

Dīghaṃ vā passasanto dīghaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti.

[2] Or breathing in short, he discerns, 'I am breathing in short';

 

Rassaṃ vā assasanto rassaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti.

or breathing out short, he discerns, 'I am breathing out short.'

 

Rassaṃ vā passasanto rassaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti.

Training (sikkhati):

 

[3] He trains himself, 'I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.'

(added note: He trains himself breathing, with the desire to be able to be sensitive to the entire body).

 

Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati.

Sikkhati (Sanskrit: śikṣati - inflected form - शक् śak) is a desiderative verb that has the underlying meaning of "desiring to be able to". It is about training, with the "desire to be able to".

He trains himself, 'I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.'

 

Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati.

[4] He trains himself, 'I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.'

 

Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati.

He trains himself, 'I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.'

 

Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati.

Passambhati : to calm down, quiet, allay - ppr. passambhayaṃ

Note: SN 54.10 (and the redundant part of this sutta's PTS,) adds the following:
On that occasion the bhikkhu fetches distinctively the noticeable body (breath), from the bodies, ardent, clearly comprehending (discerning,) mindful (thinking upon it), having removed covetousness and displeasure (as in attraction & repulsion) in regard to the world.
Kāye kāyānupassī ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
For what reason?
I call this the other body made from myself (kāyaññatarāhaṃ), Ananda, that is, breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Ananda, on that occasion the bhikkhu fetches distinctively the noticeable body (breath), from the bodies, ardent, clearly comprehending, thinking upon it, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

Training to be sensitive to, and calming the feelings.
(Feeling – Vedanā)

[5] He trains himself, 'I will breathe in sensitive to suffused contented pleasance.'

(added note: He trains himself breathing, with the desire to be able to be sensitive to, (to have the accurate knowledge of) the suffused contented pleasance).

 

Pītipaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati.


Paṭisaṃvedī
Sanskrit:
√ ववद vid : to know | to understand | to have the feel of, to be conscious of | to see.
पततससववद pratisaṃvid : An accurate knowledge of the particulars of anything.
पततससववददनक pratisaṃvedin [prati+saṃ+vedin] : being conscious of anything, feeling, experiencing.
vedin: e.g. āyurvedin = expert in ayurveda (medecine).

He trains himself, 'I will breathe out sensitive to suffused contented pleasance.'

 

Pītipaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati.

[6] He trains himself, 'I will breathe in sensitive to bliss.'

 

Sukhapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati.

He trains himself, 'I will breathe out sensitive to bliss.'


Here, there is the transendence of sukha over pīti.

 

Sukhapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati.

[7] He trains himself, 'I will breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.'


Mental fabrication is the coaction (saṅkhāra/saṃ-skṛ) of pīti and sukha; that is to say the coaction between mano and citta(ssa), [the yet unliberated and polluted ("existential") citta].
Pīti is a mind-made (manasi-kāra) kind of feeling (vedanāññatarāha) - (see grey note below).

 

Cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati.

He trains himself, 'I will breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication.'

 

Cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati.

[8] He trains himself, 'I will breathe in calming mental fabrication.'

 

Passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati.

He trains himself, 'I will breathe out calming mental fabrication.'

 

Passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati.

Note: SN 54.10 (and the redundant part of this sutta's PTS,) adds the following:
On that occasion the bhikkhu fetches distinctively the noticeable feeling from the feelings, ardent, discerning, mindful (recollecting the Teaching), having removed covetousness and displeasure (as in attraction & repulsion) in regard to the world.
Vedanāsu vedanānupassī ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṃ samaye viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyaya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.
For what reason?
I call this the other feeling made from myself (vedanāññatarāhaṃ) [through mano], (as opposed to sukha, made from cittassa, the polluted "existential" citta), Ananda, that is, a mind-made (manasikāraṃ) breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Ananda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

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