SAMĀDHI

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One might want to translate samādhi as "concentration", however, a sound lexicographic study, and context, gives us it seems, a different meaning. And even the Chinese translation from the Agamas' parallels, seems to agree; as we will see below. 

Indeed, samādhi might just be the process of establishing the citta, just before liberating it.

It is the establishment (of citta) , before totally liberating it. The transcendence from dwelling in mano+citta (citassa), towards dwelling purely in citta; so one can fulfill the process of liberating it thoroughly (second to fourth jhanas). 

Please read the notes at the bottom to see why. And read the following extracts to make (a lot) more sense out of samādhi, and get rid of that added nonsense in non-EBT sectarian suttas/sutras. 

You might just want to replace "establishing the citta" by "concentration" later on.


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(All the suttas below have parallels in Chinese, Tibetan and/or Sanskrit)
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That is hard to establish, Blessed One, namely, the citta".
Dussamādahaṃ bhagavā yadidaṃ cittan”ti.

They concentrate even what is hard to concentrate,
who delight in calming the faculties.
Having cut through the net of Death,
The noble ones, O Kāmada, go their way.
Dussamādahaṃ vāpi samādahanti,indriyūpasame ratā.
te chetvā maccuno jālaṃ,
ariyā gacchanti kāmadā”ti.

SN 2.6

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What, bhikkhus, is the noble right establishing (of) the citta with its supports and its requisites, that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness? Unification of citta equipped with these seven factors is called the noble right establishing (of) the citta, with its supports and its requisites.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, ariyo sammāsamādhi saupaniso saparikkhāro? Seyyathidaṃ— sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammāājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati; yā kho, bhikkhave, imehi sattahaṅgehi cittassa ekaggatā parikkhatā—ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ariyo sammāsamādhi saupaniso itipi, saparikkhāro itipi.
MN 117

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He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the citta, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the citta, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Gladdening the citta, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Gladdening the citta, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Establishing the citta , I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Establishing the citta, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Liberating the citta, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Liberating the citta, I will breathe out.’
cittasaṅkhārappaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘cittasaṅkhārappaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
‘passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati.
‘Cittappaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘cittappaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
‘abhippamodayaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘abhippamodayaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
samādahaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘samādahaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;
‘vimocayaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘vimocayaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;

SN 54.1

IMPORTANT NOTE:

The parallel SA 803 gives the following corresponding steps of Anapanasati:

The next four are [9] awareness of the citta (覺知心), [10] awareness of gladdening the citta (覺知心悅), [11] awareness of establishing the citta (覺知心), and [12] awareness of releasing the citta (覺知心解脫)

And the Chinese dictionary gives us the following basic definition for :
定 = to establish
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The four jhanas:

And what is the right establishing (of) the citta (sammāsamādhi)?
There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.' With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called the right establishing (of) the citta.
Katamo cāvuso, sammāsamādhi? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, vitak­ka­vicārā­naṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati … pe … tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ … pe … catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso: ‘sammāsamādhi’.
MN 141

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And what, monks, is the Faculty of establishing the citta?
Katamañca, bhikkhave, Samādhindriyaṁ?

Here, bhikkhus, the noble disciple gains the establishing (of) the citta, having made release the support.
Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako, vossaggārammaṇaṁ karitvā, labhati samādhiṁ.
SN 48.10 +

Note: Ārammaṇa means a support, and something to grasp on (Sk: grabhaṇa - √ग्रह् grah - to perceive (with the organs of sense or with [mánas] ). It is best defined in the following:
When there is a support (ārammaṇa) there is a resting place [a dwelling to strive, prosper & spread from] (patiṭṭhā) for the establishing of consciousness. SN 12.38
&
Consciousness, bhikkhus, while standing (ongoing), might stand engaged [combined, connected] with (ūpaya) form; supported upon form (rūpārammaṇaṃ), established upon form (rūpappatiṭṭhaṃ). SN 22.53
&
If a bhikkhu has abandoned lust for the form element, with the abandoning of lust, the support is cut off (vocchijjatārammaṇaṃ). SN 22.53

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There is knowledge for one who is established (whose citta is estalished), not for one who is not established.' Now, does establishing the citta come first, and knowledge after, or does knowledge come first, and establishment after?
‘samāhitassa ñāṇaṃ, no asamāhitassā’ti. Samādhi nu kho, bhante, pubbe, pacchā ñāṇaṃ; udāhu ñāṇaṃ pubbe, pacchā samādhī”ti?
...
the Blessed One has talked both of the virtue of one who is in training [a stream-winner, a once-returner, or a non-returner] and of the virtue of one whose training is complete [an arahant].
...
And what is the establishment of one who is in training?
There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful [mental] qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana... (all four jhanas).
...
(Then there is the disciple of the noble ones) — When this noble disciple is thus accomplished in virtuous behavior, establishing the citta, and discernment, with the destruction of the taints, he realizes for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by discernment, and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.
Sa kho so, ariyasāvako evaṃ sīlasampanno evaṃ samādhisampanno evaṃ paññāsampanno āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.
AN 3.73 +

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Monks, these are the four developments of establishing the citta. Which four? There is the development of establishing the citta that, when developed & pursued, leads to a pleasant abiding in the here & now. There is the development of establishing the citta that, when developed & pursued, leads to the attainment of knowledge & vision. There is the development of establishing the citta that, when developed & pursued, leads to mindfulness & alertness. There is the development of establishing the citta that, when developed & pursued, leads to the ending of the effluents.

Catasso imā, bhikkhave, samādhibhāvanā. Katamā catasso? Atthi, bhikkhave, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārāya saṃvattati; atthi, bhikkhave, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā ­ñāṇadas­sanap­paṭi­lābhāya saṃvattati; atthi, bhikkhave, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satisampajaññāya saṃvattati; atthi, bhikkhave, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā āsavānaṃ khayāya saṃvattati.
AN 4.41 (not a full parallel - see here)

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"When he is rid of them (gross impurities), there remain only thoughts of the Dhamma.
His establishing the citta is neither calm nor refined, it has not yet attained serenity or transcendence (in unity), and is kept in place by the fabrication of forceful restraint (Sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato = having restrained & having come to prevent the synergies (saṅkāra).).
But there comes a time when his citta grows steady inwardly, settles down, grows unified & established. His establishing the citta is calm & refined, has attained serenity & unity, and is no longer kept in place by the fabrication of forceful restraint.
Tasmiṃ pahīne tasmiṃ byantīkate athāparaṃ dhammavitakkāvasissanti.
So hoti samādhi na ceva santo na ca paṇīto nappaṭippassaddhaladdho na ekodibhāvādhigato sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato.
Hoti so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattaṃyeva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. So hoti samādhi santo paṇīto paṭippassaddhiladdho ekodibhāvādhigato na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato.
AN 3.101 +

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Again, the Thus Gone One knows the jhanas, the releases,  to establish the citta and the attainments, with their defilements, purities and the risings from them as they have come to be.
Tatra ce, bhikkhave, pare tathāgataṃ jhānavimokkhasamādhisamāpattīnaṃ saṅkilesaṃ vodānaṃ vuṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇena upasaṅkamitvā pañhaṃ pucchanti.
AN 6.64 +

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Bhikkhus, these seven are powers. What seven?
The power of faith, effort, shame, remorse, mindfulness,  establishment of citta and discernment.

Sattimāni, bhikkhave, balāni. Katamāni satta? Saddhābalaṃ, vīriyabalaṃ, hirībalaṃ, ottappabalaṃ, satibalaṃ, samādhibalaṃ, paññābalaṃ.

...

Bhikkhus, what is the power to establish (the citta) ?
Here, bhikkhus, the noble disciple secluding the citta from sensual desires, ... re ... abides in the four jhana. Bhikkhus, this is the power to establish (the) citta.

...
Katamañca, bhikkhave, samādhibalaṃ?
Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako vivicceva kāmehi … pe … catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, samādhibalaṃ.
AN 7.4 +

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Noble virtuous behavior, bhikkhus, has been understood and penetrated. Noble establishment (of citta) has been understood and penetrated. Noble discernment has been understood and penetrated. Noble liberation has been understood and penetrated. Craving for existence has been cut off; the conduit to existence has been destroyed; now there is no more renewed existence.

Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyaṃ sīlaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ariyo samādhi anubodho paṭividdho, ariyā paññā anubodhā paṭividdhā, ariyā vimutti anubodhā paṭividdhā, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo”ti.
AN 7.66

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Again, with the stilling of vitakka & vicāra, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and transcendence of mind (trough unification), without vitaka & vicāra, with delight and pleasure born of the establishment (of citta). This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Māra…
Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave … pe … pāpimato.
MN 26

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Whatever is right speech, friend Visākha, and whatever is right action, and whatever is right livelihood, these things are comprised within the virtue aggregate.
Whatever is right endeavour, and whatever is right mindfulness, and whatever is right establishing citta, these things are comprised within the establishing citta aggregate.
Whatever is right view, and whatever is right thought, these things are comprised within the discernment aggregate.
Yā cāvuso visākha, sammāvācā yo ca sammākammanto yo ca sammāājīvo ime dhammā sīlakkhandhe saṅgahitā.
Yo ca sammāvāyāmo yā ca sammāsati yo ca sammāsamādhi ime dhammā samādhikkhandhe saṅgahitā.
Yā ca sammādiṭṭhi yo ca sammāsaṅkappo, ime dhammā paññākkhandhe saṅgahitā”ti.

"Singleness of citta is to establish (the citta), friend Visakha; the four ways to obtain (cattāro satipaṭṭhānā) are samādhi's themes (the themes to establish); the four right exertions are samādhi's requisites (the requistes to establish) ; and any cultivation, development, & pursuit of these qualities is samādhi's development (the development to establish)". 

Yā kho, āvuso visākha, cittassa ekaggatā ayaṃ samādhi; cattāro satipaṭṭhānā samādhinimittā; cattāro sammappadhānā samādhiparikkhārā. Yā tesaṃyeva dhammānaṃ āsevanā bhāvanā bahulīkammaṃ, ayaṃ ettha samādhibhāvanā”ti. 
MN 44

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Bhikshus, there are these four kinds of meditators. What are the four?
(1) Here, bhikkhus, some meditators are skilled to establish the citta [samadhi], in regards to samadhi, but not skilled in the attaining [samāpatti = fulfilling completly] of samadhi.
(2) But, here, bhikkhus, some meditators are skilled in the attaining of samadhi, but not skilled about samadhi in regards to samadhi.
(3) But, here, bhikkhus, some meditators are neither skilled about samadhi in regards to samadhi, nor skilled in the attaining of samadhi.
(4) But, here, bhikkhus, some meditators are both skilled about samadhi in regards to samadhi and also skilled in the attaining of samadhi.
Here, bhikshus, this meditator who is both skilled about samadhi in regards to samadhi and also skilled in the attaining of samadhi— of these four kinds of meditators, he is the foremost, the best, the leader, the highest, and most excellent. (this is #1 enumareted below).

Cattārome, bhikkhave, jhāyī. Katame cattāro?
(1) Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco jhāyī samādhismiṃ samādhikusalo hoti, na samādhismiṃ samā­patti­kusalo.
(2) Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacco jhāyī samādhismiṃ samāpattikusalo hoti, na samādhismiṃ samādhikusalo.
(3) Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacco jhāyī neva samādhismiṃ samādhikusalo hoti, na ca samādhismiṃ samāpattikusalo.
(4) Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacco jhāyī samādhismiṃ samādhikusalo ca hoti, samādhismiṃ samāpattikusalo ca.
Tatra, bhikkhave, yvāyaṃ jhāyī samādhismiṃ samādhikusalo ca hoti samādhismiṃ samāpattikusalo ca ayaṃ imesaṃ catunnaṃ jhāyīnaṃ aggo ca seṭṭho ca mokkho ca uttamo ca pavaro ca.

Note: see at the end of the following enumeration, how to deal with the pairs from 11 to 55.

1. Samadhi-Samāpatti — establishing citta-Attainments
2. Samadhi-Ṭhiti — establishing citta--Stability
3. Samadhi-Vuṭṭhāna — establishing citta--Rising (emerging)
4. Samadhi-Kallava — establishing citta--Readiness
5. Samadhi-Ārammaṇa — establishing citta--Support (basis/footing)
6. Samadhi-Gocara — establishing citta--Behavior
7. Samadhi-Abhinīhāro — establishing citta--Resolution (endeavour)
8. Samadhi-Sakkacca — establishing citta--Care (respect, thoroughness)
9. Samadhi-Sātaccakari — establishing citta--Persevering
10. Samadhi-Sappāyaṃ — establishing citta--Regularity
11. Samāpatti-Ṭhiti — Attainments-Stability
12. Samāpatti-Vuṭṭāna — Attainments-Rising
13. Samāpatti-Kallita — Attainments-Pleasantness
14. Samāpatti-ārammaṇa — Attainments-Supports
15. Samāpatti-gocara — Attainments-Behavior
16. Samāpatti-abhinīhāra — Attainments-Resolutions
17. Samāpatti-sakkacca — Attainments-Care
18. Samāpatti-sātaccakari — Attainments-Persevering
19. Samāpatti-sappāyakāri — Attainments-Regular
20. Ṭhiti-Vuṭṭhāna — Stability-Rising
21. Ṭhiti-kallita — Stability and Pleasantness
22. Ṭhiti-ārammaṇa — Stability and Support
23. Ṭhiti-gocara — Stability and the Behavior
24. Ṭhiti-abhinīhāra — Stability and Resolution
25. Ṭhiti-sakkaccakārī — Stability and Acting Carefully
26. Ṭhiti-sātaccakārī — Stable and Persevering
27. Ṭhiti-sappāyakārī — Stable and Regular
28. Vuṭṭhāna-Kallita — Rising and Pleasant
29. Vuṭṭhāna-ārammaṇa — Rising and the Support
30. Vuṭṭhāna-gocara — Rising and Behavior
31. Vuṭṭhāna-abhinīhāra — Rising and Resolution
32. Vuṭṭhāna-sakkaccakārī — Rising and Acting Carefully
33. Vuṭṭhāna-sāttaccakārī — Rising and Persevering
34. Vuṭṭhāna sappāyakārī — Rising and Regular
35. Kallita-ārammaṇa — Pleasant and Support
36. Kallita-gocara — Pleasant and Behavior
37. Kallita-abhinīhāra — Pleasant and Resolving
38. Kallita-sakkaccakārī — Pleasant and Acting Carefully
39. Kallita-sātaccakāri — Pleasant and Persevering
40. Kallita-sappāyakāri — Pleasant and Regular
41. Ārammaṇa-gocara — Supports and Behavior
42. Ārammaṇa-abhinīhāra — Support and Resolving
43. Ārammaṇa-sakkaccakārī — Support and Acting Carefully
44. Ārammaṇa-sātaccakārī — Support and Persevering
45. Ārammaṇa-sappāyakāri — Support and Regular
46. Gocara-Abhinīhāro — Behavior and Resolving
47. Gocara-sakkaccakāri — Behavior and Acting Carefully
48. Gocara-sātaccakārī — Behavior and Persevering
49. Gocara-sappāyakārī — Behavior and Regular
50. Abhinīhāra-sakkaccakāri — Resolution and Acting Carefully
51. Abhinīhāra-sātaccakāri — Resolving and Perservering
52. Abhinīhāra-sappāyakāri — Resolving and Regular
53. Sakkacca-sātaccakārī — Acting Carefully and Persevering
54. Sakkacca-sappāyakārī — Acting Carefully and Regular
55. Sātaccakari-Sappāyakāri — Persevering and Regular

# 2 to 55 should be dealt as follows (e.g. #11 - Attainments-Stability):
Replace the pair in the following:

Bhikshus, there are these four kinds of meditators. What are the four?
(1). Here, bhikshus, some meditators are skilled about **stability** in regards to samadhi, but not skilled in the **attaining** of samadhi.
(2). But, here, bhikshus, some meditators are skilled in the attaining of samadhi, but not skilled about stability in regards to samadhi.
(3). But, here, bhikshus, some meditators are neither skilled in the attaining of samadhi, nor skilled about stability in regards to samadhi.
(4). But, here, bhikshus, some meditators are both skilled in the attaining of samadhi and also skilled about stability in regards to samadhi.
Here, bhikshus, this meditator who is both skilled in the attaining of samadhi and also skilled about stability in regards to samadhi — of these four kinds of meditators, he is the foremost, the best, the leader, the highest, and most excellent.
SN 34.1-55 +

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On account of doubts (vicikicchā) my establishing citta faded.
On account of not attending (amanasikāro) my establishing citta faded.
On account of sloth and torpor (thinamiddha) my establishing citta faded.
On account of fear (chambhitatta) my establishing citta faded.
On account of jubilation (uppila) my establishing citta faded.
On account of wickedness (duṭṭhulla) my establishing citta faded.
On account of too much effort (accārad­dha­vīriya) my establishing citta faded.
On account of too little effort (atilīnavīriya) my establishing citta faded.
On account of too much striving (abhijappā) my establishing citta faded. (different in parallel) 
On account of various perceptions my establishing citta faded.
On account of thinking too much about forms my establishing citta faded. (different in paralell) 
...
It occurred to me, when my establishing citta is limited, my knowledge is limited.
...
when these minor defilements, such as doubts, non attention, sloth and torpor, fear, jubilation, wickedness, too much aroused effort, too little effort, various perceptions, thinking too much about forms were dispelled, it occurred to me, now these minor defilements are dispelled and I should develop establishing citta in a threefold manner. Then I developed establishing citta with thoughts and discursive thoughts. I developed establishing citta without thoughts, thinking discursively. I developed establishing citta without thoughts and without discursive thoughts. I developed establishing citta with joy and without joy. I developed establishing citta which is equanimity.
Then knowledge and vision arose and I knew that my release is unshakeable. This is my last birth. There is no more rebirth.”
MN 128

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There are, bhikkhus, these three kinds of unwholesome thoughts: sensual thought, thought of ill will, thought of harming. And where, bhikkhus, do these three unwholesome thoughts cease without remainder? For one who dwells with a mind well established in the four ways of the obtention [of samādhi] , or for one who develops the signless (attribute-less) establishment of citta. This is reason enough, bhikkhus, to develop the signless establishment of citta. When the signless establishment of citta is developed and cultivated, bhikkhus, it is of great fruit and benefit.

Tayome, bhikkhave, akusalavitakkākāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṃsāvitakko. Ime ca bhikkhave, tayo akusalavitakkā kva aparisesā nirujjhanti? Catūsu vā satipaṭṭhānesu suppatiṭṭhitacittassa viharato animittaṃ vā samādhiṃ bhāvayato. Yāvañcidaṃ, bhikkhave, alameva animitto samādhi bhāvetuṃ. Animitto, bhikkhave, samādhi bhāvito bahulīkato mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso.
SN 22.80 +

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Householder, do you believe in the recluse Gotama's establishment of citta without vitakka & vicāra; and the establishment of citta of the recluse Gotama in which vitakka & vicāra cease?”

saddahasi tvaṃ, gahapati, samaṇassa gotamassaatthi avitakko avicāro samādhi, atthi vitakkavicārānaṃ nirodho”ti?
...
Venerable sir, when desired, secluded from sensuality and unwholesome states, with vitakka & vicāra, and with delight & pleasure born from seclusion, I abide in the first jhāna. 

Ahaṃ kho, bhante, yāvadeva ākaṅkhāmi, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ, vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.
Venerable sir, when desired I overcome vitakka & vicāra and with pleasant joy born from the establishing of citta, I abide in the second high stage of mind.
Ahaṃ kho, bhante, yāvadeva ākaṅkhāmi, vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.
SN 41.8 +

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- And what, bhikkhus, is the path leading to the unconditioned?

- establish (the citta) with vitakka and vicāra.
- establish (the citta) without vitakka , with vicāra only.
- establish (the citta) without vitakka and vicāra.

- Emptiness establisment (of citta).
- Signless establishment (of citta).
- Undirected (viz. unintended to produce - ni + धा √ dhā) establishment (of citta).

- Savitakko savicāro samādhi.
- Avitakko vicāramatto samādhi.
- Avitakko avicāro samādhi.
- Suññato samādhi.
- Animitto samādhi.
- Appaṇihito samādhi.
SN 43.12 +

________
.
The Noble Eightfold Path, Uttiya, is to be developed for the abandoning of these five cords of sensual pleasure. And what is the Noble Eightfold Path? It is: right view ... right establishment (of citta).

mesaṃ kho, uttiya, pañcannaṃ kāmaguṇānaṃ pahānāya ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo bhāvetabbo. Katamo ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo? Seyyathidaṃ—sammādiṭṭhi … pe … sammāsamādhi.
SN 45.30 +

________
.
Whatever establishment (of citta) there is accompanied by vitakka & vicāra is the enlightenment factor of the establishment (of citta) ; whatever establishment (of citta) there is without vitakka & vicāra is also the enlightenment factor of the establishment(of citta). Thus what is spoken of concisely as the enlightenment factor of the establishment (of citta) becomes, by this method of exposition, twofold.

Yadapi, bhikkhave, savitakko savicāro samādhi tadapi samā­dhi­sam­boj­jhaṅgo, yadapi avitak­ka­avi­cāro samādhi tadapi samā­dhi­sam­boj­jhaṅgo. ‘Samā­dhi­sam­boj­jhaṅgo’ti iti hidaṃ uddesaṃ gacchati. Tadamināpetaṃ pariyāyena dvayaṃ hoti.
SN 46.52 +

________
.
If a monk is insolent and negligent,
Concerned only with externals,
His virtue, establishment (of citta), and discernment
Do not become fulfilled.

Unnaḷassa pamattassa,
bāhirāsassa bhikkhuno;
Sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca,
pāripūriṃ na gacchati.
Thag 13.1

________
.
Whoever’s establishes citta does not waver,
Regardless of whether or not
They receive honours,
Is one who lives heedfully.

They regularly practice jhāna,
With subtle insight into views;
Delighting in the end of grasping,
They are said to be a good person.

Yassa sak­kariya­mānassa,
asakkārena cūbhayaṃ;
Samādhi na vikampati,
appa­māda­vihārino.

Taṃ jhāyinaṃ sātatikaṃ,
sukhuma­diṭṭhi­vi­passa­kaṃ;
Upādā­nak­kha­yā­rāmaṃ,
āhu sappuriso iti.

Thag 17.2

________
.
You shouldn’t live for the adulation of a following;
It turns your mano, and makes establishing citta hard to find.
Seeing that popularity is suffering,
You shouldn’t accept a following.

A sage should not visit respectable families
It turns your mano, and makes establishing citta hard to find.
One who’s eager and greedy for favours,
Misses the goal that brings such happiness.
Thag 18.1

________
.
So too, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu’s citta has been subdued, well subdued, regarding the six fields of experience of contact, it then becomes inwardly steady, settled, transcended (through unification) and established.
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yato kho bhikkhuno chasu phassāyatanesu cittaṃ udujitaṃ hoti sudujitaṃ, ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati, sannisīdati, ekodi hoti, samādhiyati.
SN 35.246 +


Jita = [pp. of jayati (jināti),conquer] conquered,subdued.
Sk. jayati = pr. √ जि ji
√ जि ji pp. (jita) - exceled , surpassed RV.
Udu = straight, upright. // sudu = “thoroughly” straight, upright.

San-Tiṭṭhati:,[frequentative of Vedic sthā]
√ स्था sthā t= o stand still (RV. Śbr.)
San = sa = one's own.

San-Nisīdati :
sīdati = pr. [√ sad]
√ सद् sad
to cause to be seated, lie in wait for , watch (RV.)

Ekodi :
Eka+udi (transcend – escape)

एक Eka:
- One (RV.)
- the same , one and the same , identical (ŚBr. KātyŚr.)
- one of two or many, the one - the other, some, some - others (ŚBr. KātyŚr. MBh.)
- alone , solitary , single , happening only once , that one only (RV.)

उदि udi [ ud- √ i ]
- to come out or arise from (RV. AV. ŚBr.)
- to go up to , proceed or move up , proceed (RV. AV. VS.)
- to rise (RV. VS. ŚBr. ChUp.)

उद् Ud (var. uc, uj, un, ut)
- (Implying superiority in place , rank , station , or power) - up , upwards upon , on over , above.
and
√ इ i
- appear (BṛĀrUp.), arise from (ChUp.), escape (RV. AV. ŚBr.)

________
.
So too, bhikkhus, here some wise, competent, skilful bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body (feelings in feelings … mind in mind … phenomena in phenomena), ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. While he dwells contemplating the body in the body (feelings in feelings … mind in mind … phenomena in phenomena), his citta becomes established, his corruptions are abandoned, he picks up that sign (attribute).
Evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco paṇḍito byatto kusalo bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati (Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati … pe … citte cittānupassī viharati … pe … dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati,) ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato cittaṃ samādhiyati, upakkilesā pahīyanti. so taṃ nimittaṃ uggaṇhāti.
SN 47.8 +

Note: viharati takes his real meaning of "appropriating with distinction " or "seizing distinctively".
The meditator distinguishes between bodies, feelings, etc. Like external & internal feelings for instance. Own feelings & others' feelings.
Or one feeling among different feelings.

________
.
While he is contemplating the body in the body, there arises in him, based on the body, either a fever in the body or sluggishness of mind (citta), or the mind is distracted outwardly. That bhikkhu should then direct his mind towards some inspiring sign (attribute). When he directs his mind (citta) towards some inspiring sign (attribute), gladness is born. When he is gladdened, delight is born. When the mind (mano) is uplifted by delight, the body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body experiences pleasure. The mind (citta) of one who is pleasurable becomes established. He reflects thus: ‘The purpose for the sake of which I directed my citta has been achieved. Let me now withdraw it.’ So he withdraws the citta and does not vitakka & vicāra. He understands: ‘Without vitakka & vicāra, internally mindful, I am happy.’
Tassa kāye kāyānupassino viharato kāyārammaṇo vā uppajjati kāyasmiṃ pariḷāho, cetaso vā līnattaṃ, bahiddhā vā cittaṃ vikkhipati. Tenānanda, bhikkhunā kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṃ paṇidahitabbaṃ. Tassa kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte cittaṃ paṇidahato pāmojjaṃ jāyati. Pamuditassa pīti jāyati. Pītimanassa kāyo passambhati. Passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedayati. Sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘yassa khvāhaṃ atthāya cittaṃ paṇidahiṃ, so me attho abhinipphanno. Handa dāni paṭisaṃharāmī’ti. So paṭisaṃharati ceva na ca vitakketi na ca vicāreti. ‘Avitakkomhi avicāro, ajjhattaṃ satimā sukhamasmī’ti pajānāti.
SN 47.10 +

________
.
For one who is at ease — his body calmed — the citta becomes established. When the mind of one who is at ease — his body calmed — becomes established, then establishing the citta as a factor for Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.
Passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. Yasmiṃ samaye, ānanda, bhikkhuno passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyatisamādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.

He oversees the citta thus established with equanimity. When he oversees the citta thus established with equanimity, equanimity as a factor for Awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.
So tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. Yasmiṃ samaye, ānanda, bhikkhu tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hotiupekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati.
SN 54.13 +

________
.
In one who has joy, delight arises. In one who has delight of mind (mano), the body becomes serene. When the body is serene, one feels pleasure. Feeling pleasure, the mind (citta) becomes established. When the mind is established, phenomena become manifest. When phenomena are manifest, he is reckoned as one who dwells heedfully.
Pamuditassa pīti jāyati. Pītimanassa kāyo passambhati. Passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vediyati. Sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. Samāhite citte dhammā pātubhavanti. Dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā appamādavihārītveva saṅkhyaṃ gacchati. Evaṃ kho, nandiya, ariyasāvako appamādavihārī hotī”ti.
SN 55.40 +

________
.
Vaccha, if you desire, penetrate and know the mental states of others. Know, the mind (citta) with greed and without greed, the angry mind and the not angry mind, the deluded mind and the non-deluded mind, the attentive mind and the distracted mind, the developed mind and the undeveloped mind, the mind with a compare and the mind without a compare, the established mind, and the unestablished mind, the released mind, and the unreleased mind. To you that obtention (sati) becomes the eye-witness in that mental faculty.
MN 73 +
Also SN 12.70 +, SN 16.9 +

________
.
Bhikkhus, develop the establishment (of citta) . A bhikkhu who is established, understands things according to how they have come to be.

Samādhiṃ, bhikkhave, bhāvetha. Samāhito, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
SN 35.99 +
Also SN 35.160, SN 56.1, SN 22.5 (all +) ( understands: impermanence, stress, origination & disappearance of khandhas).

________
.
There are, bhikkhus, forms, sounds cognizable by the ear ... mental phenomena cognizable by the mano that are agreeable and those that are disagreable. One should train so that these do not persist obsessing one’s citta even when they are repeatedly experienced. When the citta is not obsessed, tireless energy is aroused, unmuddled mindfulness is set up, the body becomes tranquil and untroubled, the citta becomes established and one-pointed. Seeing this fruit of diligence, bhikkhus, I say that those bhikkhus still have work to do with diligence in regard to the six bases for contact.”
santi, bhikkhave, cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā manoramāpi, amanoramāpi, ...pe... manoviññeyyā dhammā manoramāpi amanoramāpi. Tyāssa phussa phussa cittaṃ na pariyādāya tiṭṭhanti. Cetaso apariyādānā āraddhaṃ hoti vīriyaṃ asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ. Imaṃ khvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, appamādaphalaṃ sampassamāno tesaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ chasu phassāyatanesu appamādena karaṇīyanti vadāmī”ti.
SN 35.134 +

________
.
A disciple of the Buddha, mindful,
established in citta, comprehending clearly,
Understands feelings
And the origin of feelings,
Where they finally cease,
And the path leading to their destruction.
Samāhito sampajāno,
sato buddhassa sāvako;
Vedanā ca pajānāti,
vedanānañca sambhavaṃ.
Yattha cetā nirujjhanti,
maggañca khayagāminaṃ.
SN 36.1 +

________
.
Come, friends, dwell contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, transcended (through unification), with limpid citta, established (viz., with an established citta), with one-pointed mind, in order to know the body as it has come to be. 

Etha tumhe, āvuso, kāye kāyānupassino viharatha ātāpino sampajānā ekodibhūtā vippa­sanna­cittā samāhitā ekaggacittā, kāyassa yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇāya.
(Idem with feelings, mind (citta) and dhammas).
SN 47.4 +

________

.

LEXICAL REFERENCES
.

SAMĀDHI


Nyanatiloka Mahatera Dictionary gives samādhi as sam+ā+√hā

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Samādhi as samāhā
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

This is dubious.

हा √ hā (Root 1)
- to start or spring forward , bound away , give way to (dat.) RV. ;
- to spring or leap upon (?) RV. x , 49 , 5


हा √ hā (Root 2)
-to leave , abandon , desert , quit , forsake, relinquish RV.

- to put away , take off , remove , lay aside , give up , renounce , resign , avoid , shun , abstain or refrain from Mn. MBh.
- to disregard ib.

- to get rid of. escape from Up. MBh.

- to be left or abandoned or deserted ; to be left behind , fall short of (abl.) RV.

- to be excluded from or bereft of KaṭhUp. Mn. MBh. (~ late).

- to be deficient or wanting , decrease , wane , decline , come to an end ChUp. Mn. MBh.

- to cause to leave or abandon Mn. MBh.

________

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Samādhi as samādhā
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

This is much more probable.

The PTS dictionary from the Pali Text Society gives samādhi as sam+ā+√dhā


Sanskrit:

धा √ dhā

- to appoint, establish (RV. ŚBr.)

- to seize , take hold of (RV. AV)

- to put , place , set , lay in or on (RV.)

- to direct the mind (in this case mano, ) or attention upon (in this case citta) (RV.)

- to destine for (RV. Br. )

- to take pleasure or delight in (RV. AV. Br.)

- to wish to put in or lay on ( RV. AitBr.)

__________

Pali:
Samādhi
[fr.saṁ+ā+dhā]

Samādahi:[aor.of samādahati]
Samādahati = [saṃ + ā + dhā + a]
ādahati = [ā-dhā] or [ā-dah]
dah = to establish, to place.

__________

Sanskrit:
समाधि samādhi [act. samādhā]

also

समाधि samādhi [ sam-ādhi ]
आधि ādhi [ā-dhí]
धि dhi from √ dhā, of which it is the weak form.

___________________________

समाधा samādhā [sam-ādhā]
[ sam-ā-√ dhā ]

- to place or put on (ŚBr. MBh.)

- to put to , add , put on (AV. ŚBr.)

- to be absorbed in meditation (RV.) [without an acc.]

___________________________

सम् sam

//////////////////////////////////////////
सम् sam connected with [sa]
//////////////////////////////////////////

- with , along with , together , altogether - expressing "conjunction", "union"  (RV.)

[saṃ-√ dhā] = "to place together"
[ saṃ-dhi ] = "placing together"

¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨
स sa [connected with saha] ind.
-"with", "together or along with", "accompanied by". 

(expressing "junction", "conjunction",

( as opp. to [a] priv.)

¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨
सह saha
- at the same time or simultaneously with. (RV.)

//////////////////////////////////////////
सम् sam connected with [sam]
//////////////////////////////////////////

- always the same , constant , unchanged (RV.)
- having the right measure , regular , normal , right , straight (AitBr.)
- right measure or proportion (ŚBr.)
- together with or at the same time with or in accordance with (ŚBr. MBh.)
- level ground , a plain ( AV. ŚBr. MBh.)

___________________________________


आधा ādhā

- to keep , preserve , appropriate to one's self , hold , possess , take (RV.)

- to impregnate , instil (e.g. good sentiments) , impress , direct (RV. AV. ŚBr. MBh.)

___________________________________

आधा ādhā [ā-dhā]


आ ā

- near to , towards , to (RV.)


¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨
धा √ dhā

- to direct or fix the mind or attention upon , think of, fix or resolve upon (RV.)

- to appoint , establish (RV. ŚBr.)

- to seize , take hold of , hold  (RV. AV.)

- to put , place , set , lay in or on (RV.)

- to destine for , bestow on , present or impart to (RV. Br. )

- to wish to put in or lay on ( RV. AitBr.)

________

*


Last note:

Dhā and Dah, seem to have been a great source of controversy in Budha's time.
A controversy that lead to Buddha's concept of the "middle path". That is to say avoiding things as harsh ascetism.

Dah has in Pali, both the meanings of to establish OR to burn.

Dah दह् in "Vedic Sanskrit" (so to speak) means just to burn (as in practicing tapas, to the point of great pain and torture). It does not have any meaning like "to establish".

As far as the "Vedic Sanskrit" धा √ dhā
is concerned, the closest definitions (in time & space) to the Buddha seem to be:
- to appoint, establish (RV. ŚBr.)
- to wish to put in or lay on ( RV. AitBr.)
- to put , place , set , lay in or on (RV.)
- to take pleasure or delight in (RV. AV. Br.)
- to direct the mind (in our Buddhist case: mano, ) or attention upon (in our Buddhist case: citta) (RV.)

And these seem to explain the want to establish oneself in an abhippamoda"ed" citta (as in the 10th step of Anapanasati).


SEE TRANSCENDENCE
(samatikkamma)

________
*

IMPORTANT NOTE

Once the citta is liberated, one must also liberate him/herself from the citta in the higher jhanas. 

As stated in SN 46.3: "withdrawal of body and withdrawal of  citta (kāyavūpakāsena ca cittavūpakāsena ca).

In other words, stop alienating (transfering property or ownership) with the body and citta. 

Vūpakāseti, fr. vavakassati [v+ava+kṛṣ] / Sk. व्यवकृष् vyavakṛṣ [vy-ava-√ kṛṣ]). 

व्यवकृष् vyavakṛṣ  [ vy-ava-√ kṛṣ ] 
- to draw or tear away , alienate  MBh. 

अवकृष् avakṛṣ  [ ava-√ kṛṣ ] 
- to draw off or away MBh. 
- to turn off , remove KātyŚr. 

________
*

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