(Insight / clear and serene distinction into phenomena )
`Venerable sir, I have gained the knowledge of a trainer. May the Blessed One instruct me further,' `Then Vaccha, you should develop two things further. Develop calm (samatha) and insight (vipassana). Vaccha, when calm and insight is developed, it conduces to experiencing the various elements.
“yāvatakaṃ, bhante, sekhena ñāṇena sekhāya vijjāya pattabbaṃ, anuppattaṃ taṃ mayā; uttari ca me bhagavā dhammaṃ desetū”ti.
“Tena hi tvaṃ, vaccha, dve dhamme uttari bhāvehi samathañca vipassanañca. Ime kho te, vaccha, dve dhammā uttari bhāvitā samatho ca vipassanā ca aneka dhātupaṭivedhāya saṃvattissanti.
And what, bhikkhus, are the things to be developed by direct knowledge? Serenity and insight. These are the things to be developed by direct knowledge.
Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā bhāvetabbā? Samatho ca vipassanā ca—ime, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā bhāvetabbā.
also SN 45.159 (but this one has no parallel)
"But if, by such self-examination, he knows: ‘I gain the higher discernment of the serene distinction into phenomena but not internal serenity of citta, he should base himself on the higher discernment of the serene distinction into phenomena, and make an effort to gain internal serenity of citta. Then, some time later, he gains both the higher discernment of the serene distinction into phenomena and internal serenity of citta.
Sace pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno evaṃ jānāti: ‘lābhīmhi adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, na lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassā’ti, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā adhipaññādhammavipassanāya patiṭṭhāya ajjhattaṃ cetosamathe yogo karaṇīyo. So aparena samayena lābhī ceva hoti adhipaññādhammavipassanāya lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa.
These two things — serenity (samatha) and insight (vipassana) — occur in him yoked evenly together.
Again Sāriputta, the bhikkhu should reflect is my calm and insight developed?
When reflecting if the bhikkhu knows my calm and insight is not developed, he should arouse effort to develop calm and insight. When reflecting if the bhikkhu knows calm and insight is developed, he should abide joyful and happy training in those thoughts day and night.
Puna caparaṃ, sāriputta, bhikkhunā iti paṭisañcikkhitabbaṃ: ‘bhāvitā nu kho me samatho ca vipassanā cā’ti? Sace, sāriputta, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno evaṃ jānāti: ‘abhāvitā kho me samatho ca vipassanā cā’ti, tena, sāriputta, bhikkhunā samathavipassanānaṃ bhāvanāya vāyamitabbaṃ. Sace pana, sāriputta, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno evaṃ jānāti: ‘bhāvitā kho me samatho ca vipassanā cā’ti, tena, sāriputta, bhikkhunā teneva pītipāmojjena vihātabbaṃ ahorattānusikkhinā kusalesu dhammesu.
MN 151 (no parallel )
"There is the case where a monk has developed insight preceded by tranquillity. As he develops insight preceded by tranquillity, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.
"Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity preceded by insight. As he develops tranquillity preceded by insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.
"Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity in tandem with insight. As he develops tranquillity in tandem with insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.
Idha, āvuso, bhikkhu samathapubbaṅgamaṃ vipassanaṃ bhāveti. Tassa samathapubbaṅgamaṃ vipassanaṃ bhāvayato maggo sañjāyati. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.
Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ samathaṃ bhāveti. Tassa vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ samathaṃ bhāvayato maggo sañjāyati. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.
Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu samathavipassanaṃ yuganaddhaṃ bhāveti. Tassa samathavipassanaṃ yuganaddhaṃ bhāvayato maggo sañjāyati. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.
AN 4.170 (no parallel )
Two qualities are of great help in the attainment of the cessation of perception & feeling: tranquillity & insight.
Saññāvedayita nirodhasamāpattiyā kho, gahapati, dve dhammā bahūpakārā samatho ca vipassanā cā”ti.
"These two qualities have a share in clear knowing. Which two? Tranquillity (samatha) & insight (vipassana).
"When tranquillity is developed, what purpose does it serve? The mind is developed. And when the mind is developed, what purpose does it serve? Passion is abandoned.
"When insight is developed, what purpose does it serve? Discernment (paññā) is developed. And when discernment is developed, what purpose does it serve? Ignorance is abandoned.
"Defiled by passion, the mind is not released. Defiled by ignorance, discernment does not develop. Thus from the fading of passion is there awareness-release. From the fading of ignorance is there discernment-release."
Dveme bhikkhave dhammā vijjābhāgiyā. Katame dve ? Samatho ca vipassanā ca. Samatho bhikkhave bhāvito kamatthamanubhoti ? Cittaṃ bhāvīyati. Cittaṃ bhāvitaṃ kamatthamanubhoti? Yo rāgo, so pahīyati. Vipassanā bhikkhave bhāvito kamatthamanubhoti? Paññā bhāvīyati. Paññā bhāvitā kamatthamanubhoti? Yā avijjā, sā pahīyati, rāgupakkiliṭṭhaṃ vā bhikkhave cittaṃ na vimuccati. Avijjupakkiliṭṭhā vā paññā na bhāvīyati. Iti kho bhikkhave rāgavirāgā cetovimutti, avijjāvirāgā paññāvimuttīti.
AN 2.30 (no parallel) (or 2.31 - partial)
Serenity and insight: this is called the path leading to the unconditioned.
Samatho ca vipassanā ca. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo
SN 43.2 & 43.12 (no parallels)
Bhikkhus, knowing greed by experiencing these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, acurately knowing greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight.
Bhikkhus, investigating greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, to destroy greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, for the fading of greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, to estrange greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, for the cessation of greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, to renounce greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight. Bhikkhus, to give up greed, these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight.
Bhikkhus, knowing aversion, ... re ... delusion,. ... re ... .anger and grudge, ... re ... the concealing nature and spite, ... re ... jealousy and selfishness, ... re ... deception and craftiness, ... re ... obstinacy and violence, ... re ... measuring and conceit, ... re ... intoxication and negligence, by experiencing, ... re ... with accuracy, ... re ... by investigation, ... re ... to fade, ... re ... to estrange, ... re ... to cease, ... re ... to renounce, ... re ... and to give up intoxication and negligence these two should be developed. What two? Calm and insight.
“Rāgassa, bhikkhave, abhiññāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā. Katame dve? Samatho ca vipassanā ca. Rāgassa, bhikkhave, abhiññāya ime dve dhammā bhāvetabbā”ti.
“Rāgassa, bhikkhave, pariññāya … parikkhayāya … pahānāya … khayāya … vayāya … virāgāya … nirodhāya … cāgāya … paṭinissaggāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā … pe … .
“Dosassa … pe … mohassa … kodhassa … upanāhassa … makkhassa … paḷāsassa … issāya … macchariyassa … māyāya … sāṭheyyassa … thambhassa … sārambhassa … mānassa … atimānassa … madassa … pamādassa … abhiññāya … pariññāya … parikkhayāya … pahānāya … khayāya … vayāya … virāgāya … nirodhāya … cāgāya … paṭinissaggāya dve dhammā bhāvetabbā. Katame dve? Samatho ca vipassanā ca. Pamādassa, bhikkhave, paṭinissaggāya ime dve dhammā bhāvetabbā”ti.
AN 2.310-479 (no parallel)
Bhikkhus, there are four times. What four?
The right time, for hearing the Teaching (at the right time), for a discussion (at the right time), for appeasing the self (at the right time) and for wise thinking (insight) (at the right time).
Cattārome, bhikkhave, kālā. Katame cattāro? Kālena dhammassavanaṃ, kālena dhammasākacchā, kālena sammasanā, kālena vipassanā—ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro kālā”ti.
AN 4.146 & 147 (no parallels)
- is for the experiencing the various elements (Dhatu).
- is the thing to be developed by direct knowledge (Abhiññā)
- is for the attainment of the cessation of perception & feeling.
- should be developed to investigate, destroy, fade, estrange, bring to cessation, renounce and give up greed.
- should be developed to know aversion, delusion, anger and grudge, the concealing nature and spite, jealousy and selfishness, deception and craftiness, obstinacy and violence, measuring and conceit, intoxication and negligence.
- should be experienced, with accuracy, by investigation, to fade, to estrange, to cease, to renounce, and to give up intoxication and negligence.
- is the path leading to the unconditioned.
- is for the abandonment of ignorance (avijja).
- see "vipassati" below.
- and should be developed evenly with Samatha (serenity).
Tato tattha vipassati;
Etaṃ ñāṇaṃ tathaṃ tassa,
knowing deeply that it is so,
and then having insight into this:
this is real knowedge for him,
for the brahmin who is accomplished.”
Kathañca, bhikkhave, puggalo ummujjitvā vipassati viloketi? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo ummujjati sādhu saddhā kusalesu dhammesu, sādhu hirī … pe … sādhu ottappaṃ … sādhu vīriyaṃ … sādhu paññā kusalesu dhammesūti. So tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpanno hoti avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, puggalo ummujjitvā vipassati viloketi.
"And how does an individual, on coming to the surface, open his eyes & look around? There is the case where an individual comes to the surface, [seeing,] 'Conviction in skillful qualities is good, conscience is good, concern is good, persistence is good, discernment with regard to skillful qualities is good.' With the total ending of [the first] three fetters, he becomes a stream-winner, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening. That's how an individual, on coming to the surface, opens his eyes & looks around.
AN 7.15 (no parallel in SA)
Yoniso vicine dhammaṃ,
vimokkho hoti cetaso”ti.
(The power of faith, effort, shame, remorse, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. Bhikkhus, these seven are powers.)
Empowered by these the bhikkhu abides pleasantly, wisely discriminating the meanings in the Teaching, as a light is extinguished the release of extinction, comes to the mind.
AN 7.3 & 4
Yadatītaṃ pahīnaṃ taṃ,
Paccuppannañca yo dhammaṃ,
Tattha tattha vipassati;
Taṃ vidvā manubrūhaye.
ko jaññā maraṇaṃ suve;
Na hi no saṅgaraṃ tena,
Let one not trace back the past
Or yearn for the future-yet-to-come.
That which is past is left behind
Unattained is the "yet-to-come."
But that which is present he discerns —
With insight as and when it comes.
The Immovable — the-non-irritable.
In that state should the wise one grow
Today itself should one bestir
Tomorrow death may come — who knows?
For no bargain can we strike
With Death who has his mighty hosts.
MN 131 & 132 (no parallel in SA)
Ajjhattañca na jānāti,
bahiddhā ca vipassati;
sopi ghosena vuyhati.
bahiddhā ca vipassati;
na so ghosena vuyhatī”ti.
Not knowing what’s inside,
But discerning what’s outside;
They too, seeing only the external fruits of practice,
Are carried away by my voice.
Understanding what’s inside,
And discerning what’s outside;
They, seeing without obstacles,
Are not carried away by my voice.
Yo ca sīlena sampanno,
Saññato dhīro dhammesu,
But one accomplished in virtue,
learned and discerning,
self-controlled in the factors of firmness,
who clearly sees the meaning with wisdom;
gone beyond all phenomena,
not barren, discerning;
AN 4.22 (no parallel)
"This is what occurred to Sariputta through insight into mental qualities one after another:"
Note: namely what Sariputta experienced in jhana.
(e.g. directed thought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, singleness of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness,desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention in the first jhana) [see here]
MN111 (no parallel)
- know deeply (Abhiññā,) then have insight (vipassana).
- Be learned and discerning, and self-controlled in the factors of firmness.
- Go beyond all phenomena,
- See Conviction in skillful qualities , conscience, concern, persistence, discernment with regard to skillful qualities as good.
- Wisely discriminate the meanings in the teaching.
- Discern the present, as when it comes.
- See the meaning with wisdom (discernment).
- Be accomplished in virtue.
- Have insight into mental qualities one after another, when doing jhanas.
Vipassana [pp．of vippasīdati]
- (quite) purified, clear happy, bright，pure, sinless.
- reconciled or pleased; to be clear & calm, to become of peaceful citta.
प्रसद् prasad [pra-sad] [ pra-√ sad ]
- to become clear or distinct KaṭhUp.
- to settle down , grow clear and bright , become placid or tranquil MBh.
√ सद् sad - (pp. सन्न sanna)
- sit in or at RV. AV. VS. ŚBr.
- to sit down before , watch RV. AitBr.
- set down VS. ŚBr. ŚrS.
- sitting or dwelling in. AV.
प्रसन्न prasanna [pra-sanna] m. f. n.
- appeased, serene ŚBR.
Pre-Buddhist Vedic references:
प्रसन्न prasanna - appeased, serene ŚBr.
Wherefore he says, 'God Savitri, speed the sacrifice, speed the lord of sacrifice unto his portion! May the heavenly. thought-cleansing Gandharva cleanse our thought! May the Lord of Speech render our meat palatable, hail!' For the Lord of Speech is Pragâpati, and meat means food: 'May Pragâpati this day make palatable this our food!' thus he thereby says. This same oblation he offers till the day before the Soma-feast, for thus that performance of his has been commenced; and he (Savitri, the Sun) becomes serene (appeased during that sacrifice).
tasmādāha | deva savitaḥ prasuva yajńam prasuva yajńapatim bhagāya divyo gandharvaḥ ketapūḥ ketaṃ naḥ punātu vācaspatirvājaṃ naḥ svadatu svāheti prajāpatirvai vācaspatirannaṃ vājaḥ prajāpatirna idamadyānnaṃ svadatvityevaitadāha sa etāmevāhutiṃ juhotyā śvaḥsutyāyā etaddhyasyaitatkarmārabdham bhavati prasanna etaṃ yajñam bhavati
सम्प्रसन्न samprasanna [ sam-prasanna ] m. f. n. soothed , appeased (serene) ChUp.
Therefore when one is thus sound sleep, composed, serene (appeased), so that he knows no dreams, then he enters into (the Akasa of the heart through) these arteries. Then no evil touches him for then he is filled with the light of the sun.
tadyatraitatsuptaḥ samastḥ saṃprasannaḥ svapnaṃ na vijānātyāsu tadā nāḍīṣu sṛpto bhavati taṃ na kaścana pāpmā spṛśati tejasā hi tadā saṃpanno bhavat
Prajapati said, ‘He who is fully asleep, composed, serene (appeased) and knows no dream, he is the Atman. He is the immortal, the fearless. He is Brahman’. Indra went away satisfied in his heart. But even before reaching the gods he saw this difficulty: ‘In truth this one does not know himself now as “I am he”, nor indeed these beings. It seems as if he has gone to annihilation. I see no good in this’.
tadyatraitatsuptaḥ samastaḥ saṃprasannaḥ svapnaṃ na vijānātyeṣa ātmeti hovācaitadamṛtamabhayametadbrahmeti sa ha śāntahṛdayaḥ pravavrāja sa hāprāpyaiva devānetadbhayaṃ dadarśa nāha khalvayamevam+ saṃpratyātmānaṃ jānātyayamahamasmīti no evemāni bhūtāni vināśamevāpīto bhavati nāhamatra bhogyaṃ paśyāmīti
There is another possible root for vipassana in Sanskrit; and that is √ paś.
विपश्यन vipaśyana [act. vipaś]
- accurate knowledge, correct discernment of reality.
विपश् vipaś [vi-paś]
- observe, distinguish.
√ पश् paś [linked to dṛś]
- sight or eye. RV.
- to live to see , experience , partake of. undergo , incur. Mn. MBh.
- to be a spectator. Mn.
- behold , look at , observe , perceive , notice. RV.
- to see with the spiritual eye. RV., Br., ŚāṅkhŚr.
- to learn , find out. Mn. MBh.
- to have insight or discernment. Mn. MBh.
- to consider , think over , examine. Mn. MBh.
- to foresee. Mn. MBh.
Pre-Buddhist Vedic references:
This is your self that is within all'. 'Which is within all, Yajnavalkya?' 'You cannot see that which is the witness of vision; - (You can't see the seer who does the seeing - Olivelle) (You cannot see the seer of seeing - Nikhilānanda)
eṣa ta ātmā sarvāntaraḥ |
katamo yājñavalkya sarvāntaraḥ |
na dṛṣṭer draṣṭāraṃ paśyeḥ |
He then goes to the Sadas, saying, 'Behold thou the heaven, behold the air!' whereby he means to say, 'May I through thee, the dakshinâ, see the (heavenly) world.'
atha sado 'bhyaiti | vi svaḥ paśya vyantarikṣamiti vi tvayā dakṣiṇayā lokaṃ khyeṣamityevaitadāha
Then they meditated on (the deity of) eye as Udgitha; the demons pierced it with evil. Therefore with the eye one sees both the sightly and the unsightly, for it has been pierced with evil.
atha ha cakṣurudgīthamupāsāṃcakrire taddhāsurāḥ pāpmanā vividhustasmāttenobhayaṃ paśyati darśanīyaṃ ādarśanīyaṃ ca pāpmanā hyetadviddham
Additional note: (because vipassana is often associated with samatha).
Samāhita，[pp．of samādahati] - collected（of citta), settled, firm.
शमथ śamatha [śama-tha]
- No pre-Buddhist reference.
शम śama [act. śam]
- absence of sexual passion or excitement TāṇḍBr.
√ शम् śam
- to appease, calm, pacify , settle (establish) RV.
- to be quiet or calm or satisfied or contented TS. ŚBr.
॰थ -tha forms substantives & adj.
Vipassana is the [~clear and serene~] distinction into phenomena (as they have come to be).
Samatha is the serenity of the "establishment" (samādhi) of citta.