The three monarchies of the Jumma Buddhists, Hindus, Catholics & Protestants of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, under Bangladesh's occupation and genocide
The Chittagong Hill Tracts are home to a group of indigenous ethnicities, collectively known as the Jumma. The major ethnicities are the Chakma and Marma (Rakhine) who are Buddhist. There are other ethnicities like the Tripuri, Bawm, Lushai, Mru, Chak, Pankho, Tanchangya and Khumi. Some are Hindu with smaller Catholic and Protestant minorities among the smaller ethnicities.
There are three monarchies among the Jumma. They are the Chakma Circle, Bohmong Circle and Mong Circle, each of them led by a hereditary Raja (King).
These three monarchies were recognized by British India as among the princely states and were promised independence by the British before partition of India. The Chittagong Hill Tracts were 97% Jumma Buddhist in 1947 upon parition. Instead, when India was partitioned, the British assigned the Chittagong Hill Tracts to East Pakistan. Pakistan was a state that was specifically supposed to be created for Muslim majority regions only and the Chittagong Hill Tracts was wrongly assigned to East Pakistan for entirely facetious reasons.
Under Pakistani rule, some settlement happened and the Jummas were down to 90% of the Chittagong Hill Tracts by 1971 when East Pakistan became independent as Bangladesh.
The construction of Kaptai Dam from 1957-1962 resulted in the Chakma King's palace being flooded and Chakma refugees forced to flee to India as their land was submerged.
After independence of Bangladesh the new Bangladeshi government refused to recognize the Jummas rights and instead insisted the Awami League (considered the "liberal" and "moderate" party) they assimilate into Bangladeshi identity. In 1977, under the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Bangladesh started mass colonization of the Chittagong Hill Tracts with hundreds of thousands of Bengali Muslim settlers from the lowlands and a genocidal campaign of massacres and rape against Jummas along with destruction of Buddhist temples, Hindu temples and Christian Churches in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Now Jummas have been reduced to 35% of the population of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bengali Muslims are 65% of the Chittagong Hill Tract's population. Jumma Buddhists make up 34% of the population while Jumma Hindus, Catholics and Protestants make up 1% of the population.
A war raged between 1977-1997 between the Jumma Shanti Bahini (Peace Force) and the Bangladeshi army and settlers with major massacres and rapes committed by the Bangladeshi army and settlers against the Jummas.
Awami League returned to power in 1996 and negotiated the Chittagong Hill Tracts accord in 1997 to end the war. But the Bangladeshi army under the "liberal" Awami League has just continued the killings and rapes like the Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jamiat e Islamist (Islamist party) supported. All three parties, the liberal Awami League, right wing Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jamiat e Islami supported the murders and rapes against Jummas. The Awami League government has not fulfilled the Chittagong Hill Tracts accord with massive communal attacks, murders and rapes against Jummas by the army and settlers continuing to this day.
The Chakma Queen herself was violently assaulted and injured severely by Bangladeshi army personnel after protests over rapes of Jumma women by Bengali settlers.
There are graphic photos here of Bangladeshi army crimes including the murder and rape of children.
This is a facebook page of the Chakma royal family.
This is the account of the Chakma Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma
Please help raise awareness of the genocide Bangladesh is committing against the Jumma.
This is a list of links and sources and a summary you people can use.
In the Chittagong Hill Tracts the British had listened to the locals before 1947 and banned Bengali migration. But in Assam state, the British did not listen to the locals and imported Bengali Muslims and Bengali Hindus who now have colonized large parts of Assam. The Assamese Hindus and Assamese Muslims now want to evict the Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims but the Bengali Muslims are spreading false propaganda about the situation claiming that all Muslims are being rounded up and stripped of citizenship for being Muslims. Please correct the misinformation if you ever hear about it. Tripura state was overrun by Bengali Hindus fleeing East Pakistan in 1947 so the native Tripuri Hindus are now a minority. Another unfortunate situation due to partition.
Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma made his social media public here.
Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma's Facebook page.
Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma's Quora account.
A paper written by Crown Prince Aryadev Roy Chakma.
Pictures of the Chakma King, royal palace and royal temple.
These are links on the Tripuri Manikya royal family.
1621: when the Puritans celebrated first Thanksgiving, the Rakhine w/their Portuguese allies were fighting the Mughals in southeast Bengal
Another relatively unknown series of atrocities that constitute genocide is happening in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) is home to a collection of indigenous ethnicities called the Jumma who are mostly Buddhist. They ruled themselves in kingdoms until British colonization and they became semi-princely states in British India. They bordered Bengal but were not part of Bengal.
As everyone mostly knows, many Muslims of British India voted for partition in 1947 so that Muslim majority regions would become Pakistan and non-Muslim majority regions would become India or independent. The Chittagong Hill Tracts was 97% Buddhist Jummas in 1947. The British promised independence earlier to the Jummas before World War II in exchange for them supporting the Allies. This promise was violated as the man responsible for partition, Cyril Radcliffe decided to place the Chittagong Hill Tracts inside of East Pakistan, which was East Bengal, on the excuse that the Chittagong Hill Tracts should go with the Bengali Muslim majority Chittagong city (they ad nothing to do with each other. The British just named the highlands the "Chittagong Hill Tracts" because Chittagong city was nearby)
Buddhist Jummas were reduced to 90% of the population of the CHT under Pakistani rule and the Pakistani built Kaptai dam in 1964 submerged one of the palaces of the Jumma Kings along with entire villages of Jummas forcing 100,000 Jummas to flee as refugees to India where they still live today.
The biggest disaster and genocide struck after Bangladesh gained independence from Pakistan in 1971. First the "secular" "liberal" Bangladesh Awami League party leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who ruled Bangladesh after it gained independence refused to recognize Jumma identity and threatened to inundate them with Bangladeshi settlers so they would become a minority in the CHT, imposing Bangladeshi identity on the nation. Then when his opponent, the Islamist Ziaur Rahman gained power in 1977 along with his right wing Bangladesh Nationalist Party he started the genocide against the Jummas and colonized their land with torrents of Bangladeshi Muslims, mostly of criminal backgrounds. The Bangladeshi army and Bangladeshi settlers began a campaign of massacres, rape, ethnic cleansing and genocide against the Jummas. They murdered entire villages of men, women and children, raped girls and destroyed Buddhist temples. The Jumma party Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti (United People's Party of the Chittagong Hill Tracts) formed an armed wing, the Shanti Bahini (Peace Force) to fight back against Bangladesh.
The "secular" "liberal" Bangladesh Awami League later returned to power in 1996 and started negotiating after two decades of genocide. They signed the Chittagong Pece Tracts accord in 1997 with the Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti and the Shanti Bahini (agreed to disarm. Then the Bangladeshi military and settlers went on murdering and raping Jumma women and children under Bangladesh Awami League rule like they did under the previous right wing Bangladesh Nationalist Party and allied Islamists. "Secular" Bangladesh Awami League politicians encouraged riots and lynchings against Hindus and Buddhists and even participated in destruction of their temples just like their opponents Bangladesh Nationalist Party and the Islamist Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami. The Bangladeshi army and settlers are still raping and murdering Jumma women and girls to this day. Nothing changed whether the parties are Islamist or not Islamist. Bangladeshi society tolerates bigotry and lynching against religious and ethnic minorities as long as they are non-Muslims. This is similar to the situation in Egypt where both the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood and the allegedly "secular" officials of Sisi persecute Coptic Christians. Both Islamist and non-Islamist factions tolerate hatred and violence against non-Muslims. The non-Islamist parties just put on fake shows of support and lip service to religious diversity with a few holiday celebrations and photo ops before stirring hatred against those minorities the next day. In Bangladesh, Hindus are called "malaun" which means "damned" (to hell) by people in all sectors of society in casual conversation. Bengalis committed infamous massacres like the Noakhali massacre against it's Hindu minority before partition.
The only way to stop the constant murders and rapes by the Bangladeshi army and settlers is for Bangladesh to be forced to relinquish control of the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Accounts to follow on the Jumma