PADA I - SAMADI
1.1 atha yogānuśāsanam
now begins an exposition of the sacred art of yoga.
1.2 yogaḥ cittavṛtti nirodhaḥ
Yoga is the cessation of movements in the consciousness.
1.3 tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe avasthānam
tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe'vasthānam
Then, the seer dwells in his own true splendour.
1.4 vṛtti sārūpyam itaratra
At other times, the seer identifies with the fluctuating consciousness.
1.5 vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭā akliṣṭāḥ
vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭā'kliṣṭāḥ
The movements of consciousness are fivefold. They may be cognizable or non- cognizable, painful or non-painful.
1.6 pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ
They are caused by correct knowledge, illusion, delusion, sleep and memory.
1.7 pratyakṣa anumāna āgamāḥ pramāṇāni
Correct knowledge is direct, inferred or proven as factual.
I.8 viparyayaḥ mithyājñānam atadrūpa pratiṣṭham
Illusory or erroneous knowledge is based on non-fact or the non-real.
I.9 śabdajñāna anupātī vastuśūnyaḥ vikalpaḥ
śabdajñānānupātī vastuśūnyo vikalpaḥ
Verbal knowledge devoid of substance is fancy or imagination.
I.10 abhāva pratyaya ālambanā vṛttiḥ nidrā
Sleep is the non-deliberate absence of thought-waves or knowledge.
I.11 anubhūta viṣaya asaṁpramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ
Memory is the unmodified recollection of words and experiences.
I.12 abhyāsa vairāgyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ
Practice and detachment are the means to still the movements of consciousness.
I.13 tatra sthitau yatnaḥ abhyāsaḥ
tatra sthitau yatno'bhyāsaḥ
Practice is the steadfast effort to still these fluctuations.
I.14 sa tu dīrghakāla nairantarya satkāra āsevitaḥ dṛḍhabhūmiḥ
sa tu dīrghakālanairantaryasatkārāsevito dṛḍhabhūmiḥ
Long, uninterrupted, alert practice is the firm foundation for restraining the fluctuations.
I.15 dṛṣṭa ānuśravika viṣaya vitṛṣṇasya vaśīkārasaṁjñā vairāgyam
dṛṣṭānuśravikaviṣayavitṛṣṇasya vaśīkārasaṃjñā vairāgyam
Renunciation is the practice of detachment from desires.
I.16 tatparaṁ puruṣakhyāteḥ guṇavaitṛṣṇyam
The ultimate renunciation is when one transcends the qualities of nature and perceives the soul.
I.17 vitarka vicāra ānanda asmitārūpa anugamāt saṁprajñātaḥ
Practice and detachment develop four types of samādhi: self-analysis, synthesis, bliss, and the experience of pure being.
I.18 virāmapratyaya abhyāsapūrvaḥ saṁskāraśeṣaḥ anyaḥ
The void arising in these experiences is another samādhi. Hidden impressions lie dormant, but spring up during moments of awareness, creating fluctuations and disturbing the purity of the consciousness.
I.19 bhavapratyayaḥ videha prakṛtilayānām
In this state, one may experience bodilessness, or become merged in nature. This may lead to isolation or to a state of loneliness.
I.20 śraddhā vīrya smṛti samādhiprajñā pūrvakaḥ itareṣām
Practice must be pursued with trust, confidence, vigour, keen memory and power of absorption to break this spiritual complacency.
I.21 tīvrasaṁvegānām āsannaḥ
The goal is near for those who are supremely vigorous and intense in practice.
I.22 mṛdu madhya adhimātratvāt tataḥ api viśeṣaḥ
mṛdumadhyādhimātratvāt tato'pi viśeṣaḥ
There are differences between those who are mild, average and keen in their practices.
I.23 Īśvara praṇidhānāt vā
Or, the citta may be restrained by profound meditation upon God and total surrender to Him.
I.24 kleśa karma vipāka āśayaiḥ aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣaviśeṣaḥ Īśvaraḥ
kleśakarmavipākāśayairaparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣaviśeṣa īśvaraḥ
God is the Supreme Being, totally free from conflicts, unaffected by actions and untouched by cause and effect.
I.25 tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajñabījam
tatra niratiśayaṃ sārvajñabījam
God is the unexcelled seed of all knowledge.
I.26 sa eṣaḥ pūrveṣām api guruḥ kālena anavacchedāt
sa pūrveṣāmapi guruḥ kālenānavacchedāt
God is the first, foremost and absolute guru, unconditioned by time.
I.27 tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ
tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ
He is represented by the sacred syllable āuṁ, called praṇava.
I.28 tajjapaḥ tadarthabhāvanam
The mantra āuṁ is to be repeated constantly, with feeling, realizing its full significance.
I.29 tataḥ pratyakcetana adhigamaḥ api antarāya abhāvaḥ ca
Meditation on God with the repetition of āuṁ removes obstacles to the mastery of the inner self.
I.30 vyādhi styāna saṁśaya pramāda ālasya avirati bhrāntidarśana alabdhabhūmikatva anavasthitatvāni cittavikṣepaḥ te antarāyāḥ
vyādhistyānasaṃśaya pramādālasyāvirati bhrāntidarśanālabdha bhūmikatvānavasthitatvāni cittavikṣepāste'ntarāyāḥ
These obstacles are disease, inertia, doubt, heedlessness, laziness, indiscipline of the senses, erroneous views, lack of perseverance, and backsliding.
I.31 duḥkha daurmanasya aṅgamejayatva śvāsapraśvāsāḥ vikṣepa sahabhuvaḥ
Sorrow, despair, unsteadiness of the body and irregular breathing further distract the citta.
I.32 tatpratiṣedhārtham ekatattva abhyāsaḥ
Adherence to single-minded effort prevents these impediments.
I.33 maitrī karuṇā muditā upēkṣāṇāṁ sukha duḥkha puṇya apuṇya viṣayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ cittaprasādanam
maitrīkaruṇāmuditopekṣāṇāṃ sukhaduḥkhapuṇyāpuṇyaviṣayāṇāṃ bhāvanātaścittaprasādanam
Through cultivation of friendliness, compassion, joy, and indifference to pleasure and pain, virtue and vice respectively, the consciousness becomes favourably disposed, serene and benevolent.
I.34 pracchardana vidhāraṇābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya
pracchardanavidhāraṇābhyāṃ vā prāṇasya
Or, by maintaining the pensive state felt at the time of soft and steady exhalation and during passive retention after exhalation.
I.35 viṣayavatī vā pravṛttiḥ utpannā manasaḥ sthiti nibandhanī
viṣayavatī vā pravṛttirutpannā manasaḥ sthitinibandhinī
Or, by contemplating an object that helps to maintain steadiness of mind and consciousness.
I.36 viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī
viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī
Or, inner stability is gained by contemplating a luminous, sorrowless, effulgent light.
I.37 vītarāga viṣayaṁ vā cittam
vītarāgaviṣayaṃ vā cittam
Or, by contemplating on enlightened sages who are free from desires and attachments, calm and tranquil, or by contemplating divine objects.
I.38 svapna nidrā jñāna ālambanaṁ vā
Or, by recollecting and contemplating the experiences of dream-filled or dreamless sleep during a watchful, waking state.
I.39 yathābhimata dhyānāt vā
Or, by meditating on any desired object conducive to steadiness of consciousness.
I.40 paramāṇu paramamahattvāntaḥ asya vaśīkāraḥ
paramāṇu paramamahattvānto'sya vaśīkāraḥ
Mastery of contemplation brings the power to extend from the finest particle to the greatest.
I.41 kṣīṇavṛtteḥ abhijātasya iva maṇeḥ grahītṛ grahaṇa grāhyeṣu tatstha tadañjanatā samāpattiḥ
kṣīṇavṛtterabhijātasyeva maṇergrahītṛgrahaṇagrāhyeṣu tatsthatadañjanatā samāpattiḥ
The yogi realizes that the knower, the instrument of knowing and the known are one, himself, the seer. Like a pure transparent jewel, he reflects an unsullied purity.
I.42 tatra śabda artha jñāna vikalpaiḥ saṅkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ
tatra śabdārthajñānavikalpaiḥ saṃkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ
At this stage, called savitarkā samāpatti, the word, meaning and content are blended, and become special knowledge.
I.43 smṛtipariśuddhau svarūpaśūnya iva arthamātranirbhāsā nirvitarkā
smṛtipariśuddhau svarūpaśūnyevārthamātranirbhāsā nirvitarkā
In nirvitarka samāpatti, the difference between memory and intellectual illumination is disclosed; memory is cleansed and consciousness shines without reflection.
I.44 etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣmaviṣayā vyākhyātā
etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣmaviṣayā vyākhyātā
The contemplation of subtle aspects is similarly explained as deliberate (savicāra samāpatti) or non-deliberate (nirvicāra samāpatti).
I.45 sūkṣmaviṣayatvaṁ ca aliṅga paryavasānam
The subtlest level of nature (prakṛti) is consciousness. When consciousness dissolves in nature, it loses all marks and becomes pure.
I.46 tā eva sabījaḥ samādhiḥ
tā eva sabījaḥ samādhiḥ
The states of samādhi described in the previous sūtras are dependent upon a support or seed, and are termed sabīja.
I.47 nirvicāra vaiśāradye adhyātmaprasādaḥ
From proficiency in nirvicāra samāpatti comes purity. Sattva or luminosity flows undisturbed, kindling the spiritual light of the self.
I.48 ṛtaṁbhara tatra prajñā
ṛtambharā tatra prajñā
When consciousness dwells in wisdom, a truth-bearing state of direct spiritual perception dawns.
I.49 śruta anumāna prajñābhyām anyaviṣayā viśeṣārthatvāt
This truth-bearing knowledge and wisdom is distinct from and beyond the knowledge gleaned from books, testimony, or inference.
I.50 tajjaḥ saṁskāraḥ anyasaṁskāra pratibandhī
A new life begins with this truth-bearing light. Previous impressions are left behind and new ones are prevented.
I.51 tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhāt nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ
tasyāpi nirodhe sarvanirodhānnirbījaḥ samādhiḥ
When that new light of wisdom is also relinquished, seedless samādhi dawns.
PADA II - SADHANA
II.1 tapaḥ svādhyāya Īśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyāyogaḥ
Burning zeal in practice, self-study and study of scriptures, and surrender to God are the acts of yoga.
II.2 samādhi bhāvanārthaḥ kleśa tanūkaraṇārthaśca
The practice of yoga reduces afflictions and leads to samādhi.
II.3 avidyā asmitā rāga dveṣa abhiniveśaḥ kleśāḥ
The five afflictions which disturb the equilibrium of consciousness are: ignorance or lack of wisdom, ego, pride of the ego or the sense of 'I', attachment to pleasure, aversion to pain, fear of death and clinging to life.
II.4 avidyā kṣetram uttareṣāṁ prasupta tanu vicchinna udārāṇām
avidyā kṣetramuttareṣāṃ prasuptatanuvicchinnodārāṇām
Lack of true knowledge is the source of all pains and sorrows whether dormant, attenuated, interrupted or fully active.
II.5 anitya aśuci duḥkha anātmasu nitya śuci sukha ātma khyātiḥ avidyā
Mistaking the transient for the permanent, the impure for the pure, pain for pleasure, and that which is not the self for the self: all this is called lack of spiritual knowledge, avidyā.
II.6 dṛk darśanaśaktyoḥ ekātmatā iva asmitā
Egoism is the identification of the seer with the instrumental power of seeing.
II.7 sukha anuśayī rāgaḥ
Pleasure leads to desire and emotional attachment.
II.8 duḥkha anuśayī dveṣaḥ
Unhappiness leads to hatred.
II.9 svarasavahī viduṣaḥ api tatha ārūḍhaḥ abhiniveśaḥ
svarasavāhī viduṣo'pi tathārūḍho'bhiniveśaḥ
Self-preservation or attachment to life is the subtlest of all afflictions. It is found even in wise men.
II.10 te pratiprasavaheyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ
te pratiprasavaheyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ
Subtle afflictions are to be minimized and eradicated by a process of involution.
II.11 dhyānaheyāḥ tadvṛttayaḥ
The fluctuations of consciousness created by gross and subtle afflictions are to be silenced through meditation.
II.12 kleśamūlaḥ karmāśayaḥ dṛṣṭa adṛṣṭa janma vedanīyaḥ
kleśamūlaḥ karmāśayo dṛṣṭādṛṣṭajanmavedanīyaḥ
The accumulated imprints of past lives, rooted in afflictions, will be experienced in present and future lives.
II.13 sati mūle tadvipākaḥ jāti āyuḥ bhogāḥ
sati mūle tadvipāko jātyāyurbhogāḥ
As long as the root of actions exists, it will give rise to class of birth, span of life and experiences.
II.14 te hlāda paritāpa phalāḥ puṇya apuṇya hetutvāt
te hlādaparitāpaphalāḥ puṇyāpuṇyahetutvāt
According to our good, bad or mixed actions, the quality of our life, its span, and the nature of birth are experienced as being pleasant or painful.
II.15 pariṇāma tāpa saṁskāra duḥkaiḥ guṇavṛtti virodhāt ca duḥkham eva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ
pariṇāmatāpasaṃskāraduḥkhairguṇavṛttivirodhācca duḥkhameva sarvaṃ vivekinaḥ
The wise man knows that owing to fluctuations, the qualities of nature, and subliminal impressions, even pleasant experiences are tinged with sorrow, and he keeps aloof from them.
II.16 heyaṁ duḥkham anāgatam
The pains which are yet to come can be and are to be avoided.
II.17 draṣṭṛdṛśyayoḥ saṁyogaḥ heyahetuḥ
draṣṭṛdṛśyayoḥ saṃyogo heyahetuḥ
The cause of pain is the association or identification of the seer (ātmā) with the seen (prakṛti) and the remedy lies in their dissociation.
II.18 prakāśa kriyā sthiti śīlaṁ bhūtendriyātmakaṁ bhogāpavargārtham dṛśyam
prakāśakriyāsthitiśīlaṃ bhūtendriyātmakaṃ bhogāpavargārthaṃ dṛśyam
Nature, its three qualities, sattva, rajas and tamas, and its evolutes, the elements, mind, senses of perception and organs of action, exist eternally to serve the seer, for enjoyment or emancipation.
II.19 viśeṣa aviśeṣa liṅgamātra aliṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi
The guṇas generate their characteristic divisions and energies in the seer. Their stages are distinguishable and non-distinguishable, differentiable and non-differentiable.
II.20 draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddhaḥ api pratyayānupaśyaḥ
draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddho'pi pratyayānupaśyaḥ
The seer is pure consciousness. He witnesses nature without being reliant on it.
II.21 tadarthaḥ eva dṛśyasya ātmā
tadartha eva dṛśyasyātmā
Nature and intelligence exist solely to serve the seer's true purpose, emancipation.
II.22 kṛtārthaṁ prati naṣṭam api anaṣṭaṁ tadanya sādhāraṇatvāt
kṛtārthaṃ prati naṣṭamapyanaṣṭaṃ tadanyasādhāraṇatvāt
The relationship with nature ceases for emancipated beings, its purpose having been fulfilled, but its processes continue to affect others.
II.23 sva svāmi śaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhi hetuḥ saṁyogaḥ
svasvāmiśaktyoḥ svarūpopalabdhihetuḥ saṃyogaḥ
The conjunction of the seer with the seen is for the seer to discover his own true nature.
II.24 tasya hetuḥ avidyā
Lack of spiritual understanding (avidyā) is the cause of the false identification of the seer with the seen.
II.25 tad abhāvāt saṁyogābhāvaḥ hānaṁ taddṛśeḥ kaivalyam
tadabhāvāt saṃyogābhāvo hānaṃ taddṛśeḥ kaivalyam
The destruction of ignorance through right knowledge breaks the link binding the seer to the seen. This is kaivalya, emancipation.
II.26 vivekakhyātiḥ aviplavā hānopāyaḥ
The ceaseless flow of discriminative knowledge in thought, word and deed destroys ignorance, the source of pain.
II.27 tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā
tasya saptadhā prāntabhūmiḥ prajñā
Through this unbroken flow of discriminative awareness, one gains perfect knowledge which has seven spheres.
II.28 yogāṅgānuṣṭhānāt aśuddhikṣaye jñānadīptiḥ āvivekakhyāteḥ
yogāṅgānuṣṭhānādaśuddhikṣaye jñānadīptirā vivekakhyāteḥ
By dedicated practice of the various aspects of yoga impurities are destroyed: the crown of wisdom radiates in glory.
II.29 yama niyama āsana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayaḥ aṣṭau añgāni
Moral injunctions (yama), fixed observances (niyama), posture (āsana), regulation of breath (prāṇāyāma), internalization of the senses towards their source (pratyāhāra), concentration (dhāraṇā), meditation (dhyāna) and absorption of consciousness in the self (samādhi), are the eight constituents of yoga.
II.30 ahiṁsā satya asteya brahmacarya aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ
Non-violence, truth, abstention from stealing, continence, and absence of greed for possessions beyond one's need are the five pillars of yama.
II.31 jāti deśa kāla samaya anavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumāḥ mahāvratam
jātideśakālasamayānavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā mahāvratam
Yamas are the great, mighty, universal vows, unconditioned by place, time and class.
II.32 śauca santoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāya Īśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ
Cleanliness, contentment, religious zeal, self-study and surrender of the self to the supreme Self or God are the niyamas.
II.33 vitarkabādhane pratipakṣabhāvanam
Principles which run contrary to yama and niyama are to be countered with the knowledge of discrimination.
II.34 vitarkaḥ hiṁsādayaḥ kṛta kārita anumoditāḥ lobha krodha moha pūrvakaḥ mṛdu madhya adhimātraḥ duḥkha ajñāna anantaphalāḥ iti pratipakṣabhāvanam
vitarkā hiṃsādayaḥ kṛtakāritānumoditā lobhakrodhamohapūrvakā
mṛdumadhyādhimātrā duḥkhājñānānantaphalā iti pratipakṣabhāvanam
Uncertain knowledge giving rise to violence, whether done directly or indirectly, or condoned, is caused by greed, anger or delusion in mild, moderate or intense degree. It results in endless pain and ignorance. Through introspection comes the end of pain and ignorance.
II.35 ahiṁsāpratiṣṭhāyām tatsannidhau vairatyāgaḥ
ahiṃsāpratiṣṭhāyāṃ tatsannidhau vairatyāgaḥ
When non-violence in speech, thought and action is established, one's aggressive nature is relinquished and others abandon hostility in one's presence.
II.36 satyapratiṣṭhāyāṁ kriyāphalāśrayatvam
When the sādhaka is firmly established in the practice of truth, his words become so potent that whatever he says comes to realization.
II.37 asteyapratiṣṭhāyāṁ sarvaratnopasthānam
When abstention from stealing is firmly established, precious jewels come.
II.38 brahmacaryapratiṣṭhāyāṁ vīryalābhaḥ
When the sādhaka is firmly established in continence, knowledge, vigour, valour and energy flow to him.
II.39 aparigrahasthairye janmakathaṁtā saṁbodhaḥ
Knowledge of past and future lives unfolds when one is free from greed for possessions.
II.40 śaucāt svāṅgajugupsā paraiḥ asaṁsargaḥ
śaucāt svāṅgajugupsā parairasaṃsargaḥ
Cleanliness of body and mind develops disinterest in contact with others for self-gratification.
II.41 sattvaśuddhi saumanasya aikāgrya indriyajaya ātmadarśana yogyatvāni ca
When the body is cleansed, the mind purified and the senses controlled, joyful awareness needed to realize the inner self, also comes.
II.42 santoṣāt anuttamaḥ sukhalābhaḥ
From contentment and benevolence of consciousness comes supreme happiness.
II.43 kāya indriya siddhiḥ aśuddhikṣayāt tapasaḥ
Self-discipline (tapas) burns away impurities and kindles the sparks of divinity.
II.44 svādhyāyāt iṣṭadevatā saṁprayogaḥ
Self-study leads towards the realization of God or communion with one's desired deity.
II.45 samādhisiddhiḥ Īśvarapraṇidhānāt
Surrender to God brings perfection in samādhi.
II.46 sthira sukham āsanam
Āsana is perfect firmness of body, steadiness of intelligence and benevolence of spirit.
II.47 prayatna śaithilya ananta samāpattibhyām
Perfection in an āsana is achieved when the effort to perform it becomes effortless and the infinite being within is reached.
II.48 tataḥ dvandvāḥ anabhighātaḥ
From then on, the sādhaka is undisturbed by dualities.
II.49 tasmin sati śvāsa praśvāsayoḥ gativicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ
tasminsati śvāsapraśvāsayorgativicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ
Prāṇāyāma is the regulation of the incoming and outgoing flow of breath with retention. It is to be practiced only after perfection in āsana is attained.
II.50 bāhya ābhyantara stambha vṛttiḥ deśa kāla saṁkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭaḥ dīrgha sūkṣmaḥ
bāhyābhyantarastambhavṛttirdeśakālasaṃkhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭo dīrghasūkṣmaḥ
Prāṇāyāma has three movements: prolonged and fine inhalation, exhalation and retention; all regulated with precision according to duration and place.
II.51 bāhya ābhyantara viṣaya ākṣepī caturthaḥ
The fourth type of prāṇāyāma transcends the external and internal prāṇāyāmas, and appears effortless and non-deliberate.
II.52 tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśa āvaraṇam
tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśāvaraṇam
Prāṇāyāma removes the veil covering the light of knowledge and heralds the dawn of wisdom.
II.53 dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ
dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ
The mind also becomes fit for concentration.
II.54 svaviṣaya asaṁprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāraḥ iva indriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ
svaviṣayāsamprayoge cittasvarūpānukāra ivendriyāṇāṃ pratyāhāraḥ
Withdrawing the senses, mind and consciousness from contact with external objects, and then drawing them inwards towards the seer, is pratyāhāra.
II.55 tataḥ paramā vaśyatā indriyāṇām
tataḥ paramā vaśyatendriyāṇām
Pratyāhāra results in the absolute control of the sense organs.
PADA III - KAIVALYA
III.1 deśa bandhaḥ cittasya dhāraṇā
Fixing the consciousness on one point or region is concentration (dhāraṇā).
III.2 tatra pratyaya ekatānatā dhyānam
tatra pratyayaikatānatā dhyānam
A steady, continuous flow of attention directed towards the same point or region is meditation (dhyāna).
III.3 tadeva arthamātranirbhāsaṁ svarūpaśūnyam iva samādhiḥ
tadevārthamātranirbhāsaṃ svarūpaśūnyamiva samādhiḥ
When the object of meditation engulfs the meditator, appearing as the subject, self-awareness is lost. This is samādhi.
III.4 trayam ekatra saṁyamaḥ
These three together - dhāraṇā, dhyāna and samādhi - constitute integration or saṁyama.
III.5 tajjayāt prajñālokaḥ
From mastery of saṁyama comes the light of awareness and insight.
III.6 tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ
tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ
Saṁyama may be applied in various spheres to derive its usefulness.
III.7 trayam antaraṅgaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ
These three aspects of yoga are internal, compared to the former five.
III.8 tadapi bahiraṅgaṁ nirbījasya
tadapi bahiraṅgaṃ nirbījasya
Similarly, saṁyama is external when compared to seedless (nirbīja) samādhi.
III.9 vyutthāna nirodha saṁskāryoḥ abhibhava prādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇa cittānvayaḥ nirodhapariṇāmaḥ
vyutthānanirodhasaṃskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇacittānvayo nirodhapariṇāmaḥ
Study of the silent moments between rising and restraining subliminal impressions is the transformation of consciousness towards restraint (nirodha pariṇāmaḥ).
III.10 tasya praśāntavāhitā saṁskārāt
tasya praśāntavāhitā saṃskārāt
The restraint of rising impressions brings about an undisturbed flow of tranquillity.
III.11 sarvārthatā ekāgratayoḥ kṣaya udayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ
sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ
The weakening of scattered attention and the rise of one-pointed attention in the citta is the transformation towards samādhi.
III.12 tataḥ punaḥ śānta uditau tulya pratyayau cittasya ekāgratāpariṇāmaḥ
tataḥ punaḥ śāntoditau tulyapratyayau cittasyaikāgratāpariṇāmaḥ
When rising and falling thought processes are in balance, one-pointed consciousness emerges. Maintenance of awareness with keen intensity from one-pointed attentiveness to no-pointed attention is ekāgratā pariṇāma.
III.13 etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharma lakṣaṇa avasthā pariṇāmāḥ vyākhyātāḥ
etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharmalakṣaṇāvasthāpariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ
Through these phases, cultured consciousness is transformed from its potential state (dharma) towards further refinement (lakṣaṇa) and the zenith of refinement (avasthā). In this way, the transformation of elements, senses, and mind takes place.
III.14 śānta udita avyapadeśya dharma anupātī dharmī
The substrata is that which continues to exist and maintain its characteristic quality in all states, whether manifest, latent, or subdued.
III.15 krama anyatvaṁ pariṇāma anyatve hetuḥ
kramānyatvaṃ pariṇāmānyatve hetuḥ
Successive sequential changes cause the distinctive changes in the consciousness.
III.16 pariṇāmatraya saṁyamāt atīta anāgatajñānam
By mastery of the three transformations of nature (dharma), quality (lakṣaṇa) and condition (avasthā), through saṁyama on the nirodha, samādhi, and ekāgratā states of consciousness, the yogi acquires knowledge of the past and the future.
III.17 śabda artha pratyayānām itaretaradhyāsāt saṅkaraḥ tatpravibhāga saṁyamāt sarvabhūta rutajñānam
Words, objects and ideas are superimposed, creating confusion; by saṁyama, one gains knowledge of the language of all beings.
III.18 saṁskāra sākṣākaraṇāt pūrvajātijñānam
Through direct perception of his subliminal impressions, the yogi gains knowledge of his previous lives.
III.19 pratyayasya paracittajñānam
He acquires the ability to understand the minds of others.
III.20 na ca tat sālambanaṁ tasya aviṣayī bhūtatvāt
na ca tatsālambanaṃ tasyāviṣayībhūtatvāt
A yogi who is able to read the minds of others in general, can also, if necessary, precisely identify specific contents which are beyond the reach of the mind.
III.21 kāya rūpa saṁyamāt tadgrāhyaśakti stambhe cakṣuḥ prakāśa asaṁprayoge antardhānam
By control over the subtle body, the yogi can suspend at will the rays of light emanating from himself so that he becomes invisible to onlookers. He may again make himself visible by bringing back the power of perceptibility.
III.22 etena śabdādi antardhānam uktam
In the same way as described above, he is able to arrest sound, smell, taste, form and touch.
III.23 sopakramaṁ nirupakramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamāt aparāntajñānam ariṣṭebhyaḥ vā
sopakramaṃ nirupakramaṃ ca karma tatsaṃyamādaparāntajñānamariṣṭebhyo vā
The effects of action are immediate or delayed. By saṁyama on his actions, a yogi will gain foreknowledge of their final fruits. He will know the exact time of his death by omens.
III.24 maitryādiṣu balāni
He gains moral and emotional strength by perfecting friendliness and other virtues towards one and all.
III.25 baleṣu hasti balādīni
By saṁyama on strength, the yogi will develop the physical strength, grace, and endurance of an elephant.
III.26 pravṛtti āloka nyāsāt sūkṣma vyavahita viprakṛṣṭajñānam
Concealed things, near or far, are revealed to a yogi.
III.27 bhuvanajñānam sūrye saṁyamāt
bhuvanajñānaṃ sūrye saṃyamāt
By saṁyama on the sun the yogi will have knowledge of the seven worlds, and of the seven cosmic centres in the body.
III.28 candre tārāvyūhajñānam
By saṁyama on the moon, the yogi will know the position and system of the stars.
III.29 dhruve tadgatijñānam
By saṁyama on the Pole Star, the yogi knows the course of destiny.
III.30 nābhicakre kāyavyūhajñānam
By saṁyama on the navel, the yogi acquires perfect knowledge of the disposition of the human body.
III.31 kaṇṭhakūpe kṣutpipāsā nivṛttiḥ
By saṁyama on the pit of the throat, the yogi overcomes hunger and thirst.
III.32 kūrmanaḍyāṁ sthairyam
By saṁyama on kūrmanāḍī, at the pit of the throat, the yogi can make his body and mind firm and immobile like a tortoise.
III.33 mūrdhajyotiṣi siddhadarśanam
By performing saṁyama on the light of the crown of the head (ājñā cakra), the yogi has visions of perfected beings.
III.34 prātibhāt vā sarvam
Through the faculty of spiritual perception the yogi becomes the knower of all knowledge.
III.35 hṛdaye cittasaṁvit
By saṁyama on the region of the heart, the yogi acquires a thorough knowledge of the contents and tendencies of consciousness.
III.36 sattva puruṣayoḥ atyantāsaṁkīrṇayoḥ pratyaya aviśeṣaḥ bhogaḥ parārthatvāt svārthasaṁyamāt puruṣajñānam
sattvapuruṣayoratyantāsaṃkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo bhogaḥ parārthatvātsvārthasaṃyamātpuruṣajñānam
By saṁyama, the yogi easily differentiates between the intelligence and the soul which is real and true.
III.37 tataḥ prātibha śravaṇa vedana ādarśa āsvāda vārtāḥ jāyante
tataḥ prātibhaśrāvaṇavedanādarśāsvādavārtā jāyante
Through that spiritual perception, the yogi acquires the divine faculties of hearing, touch, vision, taste and smell. He can even generate these divine emanations by his own will.
III.38 te samādhau upasargāḥ vyutthāne siddhayaḥ
te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ
These attainments are impediments to samādhi, although they are powers in active life.
III.39 bandhakāraṇa śaithilyāt pracāra saṁvedanāt ca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ
bandhakāraṇaśaithilyātpracārasaṃvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ
Through relaxation of the causes of bondage, and the free flow of consciousness, the yogi enters another's body at will.
III.40 udānajayāt jala paṅka kaṇṭakādiṣu asaṅgaḥ utkrāntiḥ ca
By mastery of udāna vāyu, the yogi can walk over water, swamps and thorns without touching them. He can also levitate.
III.41 samānajayāt jvalanam
By saṁyama on samāna vāyu, a yogi glows like fire and his aura shines.
III.42 śrotra ākāśayoḥ saṁbandha saṁyamāt divyaṁ śrotram
śrotrākāśayoḥ sambandhasaṃyamāddivyaṃ śrotram
By saṁyama on the relation between space and sound, the yogi acquires the power of hearing distant and divine sounds. The organ of hearing, the ear, grasps sound in space. This is the conquest of air.
III.43 kāya ākāśayoḥ saṁbandha saṁyamāt laghutūlasamāpatteḥ ca ākāśagamanam
kāyākāśayoḥ sambandhasaṃyamāllaghutūla samāpatteścākāśagamanam
By knowing the relationship between the body and ether, the yogi transforms his body and mind so that they become as light as cotton fibre. He can then levitate in space. This is the conquest of ether.
III.44 bahiḥ akalpitā vṛttiḥ mahāvidehā tataḥ prakāśa āvaraṇakṣayaḥ
bahirakalpitā vṛttirmahāvidehā tataḥ prakāśāvaraṇakṣayaḥ
By saṁyama on mahāvideha (the disembodied state), where consciousness acts outside the body, the veil covering the light of illumination is destroyed.
III.45 sthūla svarūpa sūkṣma anvaya arthavatva saṁyamāt bhūtajayaḥ
By saṁyama on the elements - their mass, forms, subtlety, conjunction and purposes, the yogi becomes Lord over them all.
III.46 tataḥ aṇimādi prādurbhāvaḥ kāyasaṁpat taddharma anabhighātaḥ ca
From that arises perfection of the body, the ability to resist the play of the elements, and powers such as minuteness.
III.47 rūpa lāvaṇya bala vajra saṁhananatvāni kāyasaṁpat
Perfection of the body consists of beauty of form, grace, strength, compactness, and the hardness and brilliance of a diamond.
III.48 grahaṇa svarūpa asmitā anvaya arthavattva saṁyamāt indriyajayaḥ
Through saṁyama upon the purpose of the conjunction of the process of knowing, the ego, and nature, there is mastery over the senses.
III.49 tataḥ manojavitvaṁ vikaraṇabhāvaḥ pradhānajayaḥ ca
tato manojavitvaṃ vikaraṇabhāvaḥ pradhānajayaśca
By mastery over the senses of perception, the yogi's speed of body, senses and mind matches that of the soul, independent of the primary causes of nature. Unaided by consciousness, he subdues the first principle of nature (mahat).
III.50 sattva puruṣa anyatā khyātimātrasya sarvabhāva adhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ sarvajñātṛtvaṁ ca
sattvapuruṣānyatākhyātimātrasya sarvabhāvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṃ sarvajñātṛtvaṃ ca
Only one who knows the difference between the illuminative intelligence and the seer attains supreme knowledge of all that exists and all that manifests.
III.51 tadvairāgyāt api doṣabījakṣaye kaivalyam
tadvairāgyādapi doṣabījakṣaye kaivalyam
By destruction of the seeds of bondage and the renunciation of even these powers, comes eternal emancipation.
III.52 sthānyupanimantraṇe saṅgasmayākaraṇaṁ punaraniṣṭa prasaṅgāt
sthānyupanimantraṇe saṅgasmayākaraṇaṃ punaraniṣṭaprasaṅgāt
When approached by celestial beings, there should be neither attachment nor surprise, for undesirable connections can occur again.
III.53 kṣaṇa tatkramayoḥ saṁyamāt vivekajaṁ jñānam
kṣaṇatatkramayoḥ saṃyamādvivekajaṃ jñānam
By saṁyama on moment and on the continuous flow of moments, the yogi gains exalted knowledge, free from the limitations of time and space.
III.54 jāti lakṣaṇa deśaiḥ anyatā anavacchedāt tulyayoḥ tataḥ pratipattiḥ
jātilakṣaṇadeśairanyatānavacchedāt tulyayostataḥ pratipattiḥ
By this knowledge the yogi is able to distinguish unerringly the differences in similar objects which cannot be distinguished by rank, qualitative signs or position in space.
III.55 tārakaṁ sarvaviṣayaṁ sarvathāviṣayaṁ akramaṁ ca iti vivekajam jñānam
tārakaṃ sarvaviṣayaṃ sarvathāviṣayam akramaṃ ceti vivekajaṃ jñānam
The essential characteristic of the yogi's exalted knowledge is that he grasps instantly, clearly and wholly, the aims of all objects without going into the sequence of time or change.
III.56 sattva puruṣayoḥ śuddhi sāmye kaivalyam iti
sattvapuruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyamiti
When the purity of intelligence equals the purity of the soul, the yogi has reached kaivalya, perfection in yoga.
PADA IV - VIBHUTI
IV.1 janma auṣadhi mantra tapaḥ samādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ
Accomplishments may be attained through birth, the use of herbs, incantations, self-discipline or samādhi.
IV.2 jātyantara pariṇāmaḥ prakṛtyāpūrāt
The abundant flow of nature's energy brings about a transformation in one's birth, aiding the process of evolution.
IV.3 nimittaṁ aprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ varaṇabhedaḥ tu tataḥ kṣetrikavat
nimittamaprayojakaṃ prakṛtīnāṃ varaṇabhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat
Nature's efficient cause does not impel its potentialities into action, but helps to remove the obstacles to evolution, just as a farmer builds banks to irrigate his fields.
IV.4 nirmāṇacittāni asmitāmātrāt
Constructed or created mind springs from the sense of individuality (asmitā).
IV.5 pravṛtti bhede prayojakaṁ cittaṁ ekaṁ anekeṣām
pravṛttibhede prayojakaṃ cittamekamanekeṣām
Consciousness is one, but it branches into many different types of activities and innumerable thought-waves.
IV.6 tatra dhyānajam anāśayam
Of these activities of consciousness of perfected beings, only those which proceed from meditation are free from latent impressions and influences.
IV.7 karma aśukla akṛṣṇam yoginaḥ trividham itareṣām
A yogi's actions are neither white nor black. The actions of others are of three kinds, white, black or grey.
IV.8 tataḥ tadvipāka anuguṇānām eva abhivyaktiḥ vāsanānām
These three types of actions leave impressions which become manifest when conditions are favourable and ripe.
IV.9 jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānām api ānantaryaṁ smṛti saṁskārayoḥ ekarūpatvāt
Life is a continuous process, even though it is demarcated by race, place and time. Due to the uninterrupted close relationship between memory and subliminal impressions, the fruits of actions remain intact from one life to the next, as if there were no separation between births.
IV.10 tāsām anāditvaṁ ca āśiṣaḥ nityatvāt
tāsāmanāditvaṃ cāśiṣo nityatvāt
The impressions, memories and desires have existed eternally, as the desire to live is eternal.
IV.11 hetu phala āśraya ālambanaiḥ saṅgṛhītatvāt eṣām abhāve tad abhāvaḥ
hetuphalāśrayālambanaiḥ saṃgṛhītatvādeṣāmabhāve tadabhāvaḥ
Impressions and desires are bound together by their dependence upon cause and effect. In the absence of the latter, the former too ceases to function.
IV.12 atīta anāgataṁ svarūpataḥ asti adhvabhedāt dharmāṇām
The existence of the past and the future is as real as that of the present. As moments roll into movements which have yet to appear as the future, the quality of knowledge in one's intellect and consciousness is affected.
IV.13 te vayakta sūkṣmāh guṇātmānaḥ
te vyaktasūkṣmā guṇātmānaḥ
The three phases of time intermingle rhythmically and interweave with the qualities of nature. They change the composition of nature's properties into gross and subtle.
IV.14 pariṇāma ekatvāt vastutattvam
Unity in the mutation of time caused by the abiding qualities of nature, sattva, rajas and tamas, causes modifications in objects, but their unique essence, or reality, does not change.
IV.15 vastusāmye cittabhedāt tayoḥ vibhaktaḥ panthāḥ
vastusāmye cittabhedāttayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ
Due to the variance in the quality of mind-content, each person may view the same object differently, according to his own way of thinking.
IV.16 na ca ekacitta tantraṁ ced vastu tat apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt
na caikacittatantraṃ vastu tadapramāṇakaṃ tadā kiṃ syāt
An object exists independent of its cognizance by any one consciousness. What happens to it when that consciousness is not there to perceive it?
IV.17 taduparāga apekṣitvāt cittasya vastu jñāta ajñātam
taduparāgāpekṣitvāccittasya vastu jñātājñātam
An object remains known or unknown according to the conditioning or expectation of the consciousness.
IV.18 sadā jñātaḥ cittavṛttayaḥ tatprabhoḥ puruṣasya apariṇāmitvāt
sadā jñātāścittavṛttayastatprabhoḥ puruṣasyāpariṇāmitvāt
Puruṣa is ever illuminative and changeless. Being constant and master of the mind, he always knows the moods and modes of consciousness.
IV.19 na tat svābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt
na tatsvābhāsaṃ dṛśyatvāt
Consciousness cannot illumine itself as it is a knowable object.
IV.20 ekasamaye ca ubhaya anavadhāraṇam
Consciousness cannot comprehend both the seer and itself at the same time.
IV.21 cittāntaradṛśye buddhibuddheḥ atiprasaṅgaḥ smṛtisaṅkaraḥ ca
cittāntaradṛśye buddhibuddheratiprasaṅgaḥ smṛtisaṅkaraśca
If consciousness were manifold in one's being, each cognizing the other, the intelligence too would be manifold, so the projections of mind would be many, each having its own memory.
IV.22 citeḥ apratisaṁkramāyāḥ tadākārāpattau svabuddisaṁvedanam
Consciousness distinguishes its own awareness and intelligence when it reflects and identifies its source - the changeless seer - and assumes his form.
IV.23 draṣṭṛ dṛśya uparaktaṁ cittaṁ sarvārtham
draṣṭṛdṛśyoparaktaṃ cittaṃ sarvārtham
Consciousness, reflected by the seer as well as by the seen, appears to be all-comprehending.
IV.24 tat asaṅkhyeya vāsanābhiḥ citram api parārthaṁ saṁhatyakāritvāt
tadasaṃkhyeyavāsanābhiścitramapi parārthaṃ saṃhatyakāritvāt
Though the fabric of consciousness is interwoven with innumerable desires and subconscious impressions, it exists for the seer on account of its proximity to the seer as well as to the objective world.
IV.25 viśeṣadarśinaḥ ātmabhāva bhāvanānivṛttiḥ
For one who realizes the distinction between citta and ātmā, the sense of separation between the two disappears.
IV.26 tadā vivekanimnaṁ kaivalya prāgbhāraṁ cittam
tadā vivekanimnaṃ kaivalyaprāgbhāraṃ cittam
The consciousness is drawn strongly towards the seer or the soul due to the gravitational force of its exalted intelligence.
IV.27 tat cchidreṣu pratayayāntarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ
tacchidreṣu pratyayāntarāṇi saṃskārebhyaḥ
Notwithstanding this progress, if one is careless during the interval, a fissure arises due to past hidden impressions, creating division between the consciousness and the seer.
IV.28 hānam eṣāṁ kleśavat uktam
In the same way as the sādhaka strives to be free from afflictions, the yogi must handle these latent impressions judiciously to extinguish them.
IV.29 prasaṁkhyāne api akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharmameghaḥ samādhiḥ
prasaṃkhyāne'pyakusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāterdharmameghaḥ samādhiḥ
The yogi who has no interest even in this highest state of evolution, and maintains supreme attentive, discriminative awareness, attains dharmameghaḥ samādhi: he contemplates the fragrance of virtue and justice.
IV.30 tataḥ kleśa karma nivṛttiḥ
Then comes the end of afflictions and of karma.
IV.31 tadā sarva āvaraṇa malāpetasya jñānasya ānaṅtyāt jñeyam alpam
tadā sarvāvaraṇamalāpetasya jñānasyānantyājjñeyamalpam
The, when the veils of impurities are removed, the highest, subjective, pure, infinite knowledge is attained, and the knowable, the finite, appears as trivial.
IV.32 tataḥ kṛtārthānāṁ pariṇāmakrama samāptiḥ guṇānām
tataḥ kṛtārthānāṃ pariṇāmakramasamāptirguṇānām
When dharmameghaḥ samādhi is attained, qualities of nature (guṇas) come to rest. Having fulfilled their purpose, their sequence of successive mutations is at an end.
IV.33 kṣaṇa pratiyogī pariṇāma aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ
kṣaṇapratiyogī pariṇāmāparāntanirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ
As the mutations of the guṇas cease to function, time, the uninterrupted movement of moments, stops. This deconstruction of the flow of time is comprehensible only at this final stage of emancipation.
IV.34 puruṣārtha śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiḥ iti
puruṣārthaśūnyānāṃ guṇānāṃ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṃ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti
Kaivalya, liberation, comes when the yogi has fulfilled the puruṣārthas, the fourfold aims of life, and has transcended the guṇas. Aims and guṇas return to their source, and consciousness is established in its own natural purity.