JHANA

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The seven true qualities (saddhamma) to reach jhana
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A disciple of the noble ones has conviction, is convinced of the Tathagata's Awakening.
Chorus: With conviction, the disciple of the noble ones abandons what is unskillful, develops what is skillful, abandons what is blameworthy, develops what is blameless, and looks after himself with purity.

The disciple of the noble ones has a sense of shame. He feels shame at [the thought of engaging in] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. He feels shame at falling into evil, unskillful actions.
Chorus: With shame..., ...

The disciple of the noble ones has a sense of concern. He feels concern for [the suffering that results from] bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, mental misconduct. He feels concern at falling into evil, unskillful actions.
Chorus: With concern...,...

The disciple of the noble ones has heard much, has retained what he has heard, has stored what he has heard (viz. Learning). Whatever teachings are admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end, that — in their meaning & expression — proclaim the holy life that is entirely complete & pure: those he has listened to often, retained, discussed, accumulated, examined with his mind, and well-penetrated in terms of his views.
Chorus: With learning..., ...

The disciple of the noble ones keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and taking on skillful mental qualities, is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities.
Chorus: With persistence..., ...

The disciple of the noble ones is mindful, highly meticulous, remembering & able to call to mind even things that were done & said long ago.
Chorus: With mindfulness..., ...

The disciple of the noble ones is discerning, endowed with discernment of arising and passing away — noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress.
Chorus: With discernment..., ...
AN 7.63 (aka AN 7.67-Nagarūpama sutta)

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THE FOUR JHANAS
(The training in heightened  mind [adhi­citta­sikkhā] )
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And how , Ānanda, does the monk steady his mind internally , quiet it down, make it one-pointed, concentrate it?

Here, Ānanda, the monk, having abandoned the five mental hindrances [Sensory desire (kāmacchanda) - Ill-will (vyāpāda) - Sloth-torpor (thīna-middha) - Restlessness/worry (uddhacca-kukkucca) - Doubt (vicikicchā)]; imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite detached from sensual pleasures, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters and remains in the first jhana, accompanied by thought (vitakka) and examination (concretism?) (vicāra), accompanied by profound delight (rapture) (pīti) and happiness (sukha), born of solitude. [With that he abandons passion (towards pleasant feelings). No passion-obsession gets obsessed there. MN 44]. [His consciousness does not follow the drift of the profound delight & pleasure born of withdrawal, is not tied to... chained... fettered, & joined to the attraction of the profound delight & pleasure born of withdrawal. MN 138]. [That, I tell you, comes under the perturbable. And what comes under the perturbable there? The thoughts & examination (concretism?)s that haven't ceased there: that's what comes under the perturbable there. MN 66]. [His earlier perception of sensuality ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of profound delight & pleasure born of seclusion. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of profound delight & pleasure born of seclusion. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases. DN 9]. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the profound delight and happiness born of solitude. [viz. he makes the profound delight and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the profound delight and pleasure born of seclusion.] Just as a skilled bath man or a bath man’s apprentice heaps bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it gradually with water, kneads it till the moisture wets his ball of bath powder, soaks it and pervades it inside and out, yet the ball itself does not ooze; so too, a bhikkhu makes the profound delight and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the profound delight and pleasure born of seclusion. [At that time he does not intend his own affliction, the affliction of others, or the affliction of both. He feels a feeling totally unafflicted. The unafflicted, I tell you, is the highest allure of feelings. MN 13] – [That is to say: any affection of his that is born of affection does not come about. Any aversion of his that is born of affection... any affection of his that is born of aversion... any aversion of his that is born of aversion does not come about. AN 4.200].
Five factors are abandoned in the first jhana, and with five is it endowed. There is the case where, in a monk who has attained the first jhana, sensual desire is abandoned, ill will is abandoned, sloth & torpor is abandoned, restlessness & anxiety is abandoned, uncertainty is abandoned. And there occur thought, evaluation, profound delight, pleasure, & singleness of mind. It's in this way that five factors are abandoned in the first jhana, and with five it is endowed." (MN 43)

For one who has attained the first jhana, word has ceased.
Paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannassa vācā niruddhā hoti.
[SN 36.11]


Furthermore, Ānanda, the monk, with the stilling of thought and examination (concretism?), by gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind (self-confidence and singleness of mind), enters and remains in the second jhana, free from thought and examination (concretism?), accompanied by profound delight and pleasure born of concentration. [This is called noble silence ... Establish your mind in noble silence. Make your mind unified in noble silence. Concentrate your mind in noble silence. SN 21.1]. [His consciousness does not follow the drift of the profound delight & pleasure born of composure, is not tied to... chained... fettered, & joined to the attraction of the rapture & pleasure born of composure. MN 138]. [That, I tell you, comes under the perturbable. And what comes under the perturbable there? The profound delight-pleasure that hasn't ceased there: that's what comes under the perturbable there. MN 66]. [His earlier perception of a refined truth of profound delight & pleasure born of seclusion ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of profound delight & pleasure born of concentration. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of profound delight & pleasure born of concentration. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases. DN9]. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the profound delight and happiness born of concentration. [viz. He makes the profound delight and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the profound delight and pleasure born of concentration.] Just as though there were a lake whose waters welled up from below and it had no inflow from east, west, north, or south and would not be replenished from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the whole lake unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the profound delight and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the profound delight and pleasure born of concentration. [At that time he does not intend his own affliction, the affliction of others, or the affliction of both. He feels a feeling totally unafflicted. The unafflicted, I tell you, is the highest allure of feelings. MN 13]

For one who has attained the second jhana, thought and examination (concretism?) have ceased.
Dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannassa vitakkavicārā niruddhā honti.
[SN 36.11]

Concretism = a representation of an abstract idea in concrete terms.

And furthermore, Ānanda, the monk, with the fading away of profound delight, remains equanimous, mindful and fully aware, and still feeling pleasure with the body. He enters and remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, ‘‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.” [His consciousness does not follow the drift of the equanimity & pleasure, is not tied to... chained... fettered, & joined to the attraction of the equanimity & pleasure. MN 138]. [That, I tell you, comes under the perturbable. And what comes under the perturbable there? The equanimity-pleasure that hasn't ceased there: that's what comes under the perturbable there. MN 66]. [His earlier perception of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of concentration ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of equanimity. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of equanimity. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases. DN9]. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the happiness free from profound delight. [viz. He makes the pleasure divested of profound delight drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of profound delight.] Just as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and cool water drenches, steeps, fills, and pervades them to their tips and their roots, so that there is no part of all those lotuses unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the pleasure divested of profound delight drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of profound delight. [At that time he does not intend his own affliction, the affliction of others, or the affliction of both. He feels a feeling totally unafflicted. The unafflicted, I tell you, is the highest allure of feelings. MN 13]

For one who has attained the third jhana, rapture has ceased.

And furthermore, Ānanda, the monk, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain—and with the earlier disappearance of joy and grief—enters and abides in the fourth jhana, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. [No ignorance-obsession gets obsessed there. MN 44]. [His consciousness does not follow the drift of the neither pleasure nor pain, is not tied to... chained to... fettered, & joined to the attraction of the neither pleasure nor pain: The mind is said not to be internally positioned. MN 138].[Now that, I tell you, comes under the imperturbable. MN 66]. [His earlier perception of a refined truth of equanimity ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of neither pleasure nor pain. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of neither pleasure nor pain. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases. DN9]. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind. Just as though a man were sitting covered from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his whole body not covered by the white cloth; so too, a bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind. And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge. [At that time he does not intend his own affliction, the affliction of others, or the affliction of both. He feels a feeling totally unafflicted. The unafflicted, I tell you, is the highest allure of feelings. MN 13]

For one who has attained the fourth jhana, in-breathing and out-breathing have ceased.


MN 77 & others.

REPEAT THE FOLLOWING AFTER EACH OF THE FOUR JHANAS:

Whatever exists therein of material form, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent, as suffering, as a disease, as a tumour, as a barb, as a calamity, as an affliction, as alien, as disintegrating, as void, as not self. He turns his mind away from those states and directs it towards the deathless element thus: ‘This is the peaceful, this is the sublime, that is, the stilling of all formations, the relinquishing of all attachments, the destruction of craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbāna.’ This is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters.
- Self-identity views,
- Uncertainty,
- Grasping at precepts & practices,
- Sensual desire,
- Ill will.

“Venerable sir, if this is the path, the way to the abandoning of the five lower fetters, then how is it that some bhikkhus here are said to gain deliverance of mind and some are said to gain deliverance by wisdom?”
“The difference here, Ānanda, is in their faculties, I say.”
MN 64

Note: this is repeated also after each of the higher Jhanas.

REPEAT THE FOLLOWING AFTER EACH OF THE FOUR JHANAS:

He considers this and understands it thus: ‘This jhāna is conditioned and volitionally produced. But whatever is conditioned and volitionally produced is impermanent, subject to cessation.’ If he is steady in that, he attains the destruction of the taints.
AN 11.17
- craving for sensual pleasures,
- craving for existence, and
- ignorance*.
* Ignorance = Not knowing about suffering (stress/dukkha), not knowing about the origin of suffering, not knowing about the cessation of suffering, not knowing about the way leading to the cessation of suffering—this is called ignorance.
Stress/suffering/dukkha = [craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e., craving for sensuality, craving for becoming, craving for non-becoming. / The remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation, relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.]

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THE CEASING OF UNSKILLFUL AND SKILLFUL RESOLVES (akusalā & kusalā saṅkappā) WITH JHANA 1 & 2.

And what are unskillful resolves? Being resolved on sensuality, on ill will, on harmfulness. These are called unskillful resolves. What is the cause of unskillful resolves? Their cause, too, has been stated, and they are said to be perception-caused. Which perception? — for perception has many modes & permutations. Any sensuality-perception, ill will-perception or harmfulness-perception: That is the cause of unskillful resolves. Now where do unskillful resolves cease without trace? Their cessation, too, has been stated: There is the case where a monk, quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, enters & remains in the first jhana: profound delight & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. This is where unskillful resolves cease without trace.

And what sort of practice is the practice leading to the cessation of unskillful resolves? There is the case where a monk generates desire...for the sake of the non-arising of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen...for the sake of the abandoning of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen...for the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen...(and) for the...development & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen. This sort of practice is the practice leading to the cessation of unskillful resolves.

"And what are skillful resolves? Being resolved on renunciation (freedom from sensuality), on non-ill will, on harmlessness. These are called skillful resolves. What is the cause of skillful resolves? Their cause, too, has been stated, and they are said to be perception-caused. Which perception? — for perception has many modes & permutations. Any renunciation-perception, non-ill will-perception or harmlessness-perception: That is the cause of skillful resolves. Now where do skillful resolves cease without trace? Their cessation, too, has been stated: There is the case where a monk, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, enters & remains in the second jhana: profound delight & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. This is where skillful resolves cease without trace.

And what sort of practice is the practice leading to the cessation of skillful resolves? There is the case where a monk generates desire...for the sake of the non-arising of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen...for the sake of the abandoning of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen...for the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen...(and) for the... development & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen. This sort of practice is the practice leading to the cessation of skillful resolves. MN 78

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Then, bhikkhu, I have also taught the successive cessation of formations.
For one who has attained the first jhana, speech has ceased (and subsided and have been tranquillized).
For one who has attained the second jhana, thought and examination have ceased (and subsided and have been tranquillized).
For one who has attained the third jhana, profound delight has ceased (and subsided and have been tranquillized).
For one who has attained the fourth jhana, in-breathing and out-breathing have ceased (and subsided and have been tranquillized).
For one who has attained the base of the infinity of space, the perception of form has ceased (and subsided).
For one who has attained the base of the infinity of consciousness, the perception pertaining to the base of the infinity of space has ceased (and subsided).    
For one who has attained the base of nothingness, the perception pertaining to the base of the infinity of consciousness has ceased (and subsided).
For one who has attained the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, the perception pertaining to the base of nothingness has ceased (and subsided).
For one who has attained the cessation of perception and feeling, perception and feeling have ceased (and subsided and have been tranquillized).
For a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, lust has ceased, hatred has ceased, delusion has ceased (and subsided and have been tranquillized).
SN 36.11

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THE HIGHER JHANAS
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Whatever exists therein of material form, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent…as not self. He turns his mind away from those states and directs it towards the deathless element.

I have proclaimed to my disciples the way to develop the eight liberations (vimokkhe).
akkhātā mayā sāvakānaṃ paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipannā me sāvakā aṭṭha vimokkhe bhāventi.

Possessed of material form, one sees forms: this is the first liberation.
Rūpī rūpāni passati, ayaṃ paṭhamo vimokkho

 

Not perceiving form internally, one sees forms externally: this is the second liberation.
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati, ayaṃ dutiyo vimokkho

One is resolved only upon the auspicious :  this is the third liberation.
subhanteva adhimutto hoti, ayaṃ tatiyo vimokkho

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With the complete transcendence of perceptions of forms, with the passing away of perceptions of sensory impingement, with nonattention to perceptions of diversity, aware that ‘space is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the base of the infinity of space.
With the complete surmounting of perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact (resistance), with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, aware  [perceiving,]  that ‘space is infinite,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of infinite space: this is the fourth liberation.
sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ catuttho vimokkho

(“This is another superhuman state…which we have attained by surmounting the preceding abiding, by making that abiding subside.”)

(This bhikkhu is said to have blindfolded Māra, to have become invisible to the Evil One by depriving Māra’s eye of its opportunity.)

Repeat these two, after each liberation)

For one who has attained the base of the infinity of space, the perception of form has ceased.

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By completely transcending the base of the infinity of space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite,’ a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the base of the infinity of consciousness.
By completely surmounting (complete transcending) the base (dimension) of infinite space, aware that ‘consciousness is infinite (perceiving infinite consciousness), one enters upon and abides in the base of infinite consciousness: this is the fifth liberation.
sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇan’ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ pañcamo vimokkho

For one who has attained the base of the infinity of consciousness, the perception pertaining to the base of the infinity of space has ceased.

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By completely transcending the base of the infinity of consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the base of nothingness.
By completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ one enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness: this is the sixth liberation.
sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ chaṭṭho vimokkho

For one who has attained the base of nothingness, the perception pertaining to the base of the infinity of consciousness has ceased.

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By completely transcending the base of nothingness, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception.
By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, one enters upon and abides in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception: this is the seventh liberation.
sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ sattamo vimokkho

For one who has attained the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, the perception pertaining to the base of nothingness has ceased.

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By completely transcending the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, a bhikkhu enters and dwells in the cessation of perception and feeling.
By completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one enters upon and abides in the cessation of perception and feeling: this is the eighth liberation.
sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ aṭṭhamo vimokkho.

And thereby many disciples of mine abide having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge.
Tatra ca pana me sāvakā bahū abhiññāvosānapāramippattā viharanti.

And our taints are destroyed by our seeing with wisdom.

 We do not see any other comfortable abiding higher or more sublime than this one.”

For one who has attained the cessation of perception and feeling, perception and feeling have ceased.

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How is the cessation of perception and feeling attained?”
“A monastic who is attaining the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, does not think: ‘I will attain the cessation of perception and feeling,’ or ‘I am attaining the cessation of perception and feeling,’ or ‘I have attained the cessation of perception and feeling.’ But previously his mind has been developed so that it leads to that state.”

For a monastic who has attained the cessation of perception and feeling, Noble Lady, which things cease first: bodily process, or speech process, or mental process?”
“For a monastic who is attaining the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, first speech process ceases, then bodily process ceases, then mental process ceases.”

Is the emergence from the cessation of perception and feeling?”
“A monastic who is emerging from the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, does not think: ‘I will emerge from the cessation of perception and feeling,’ or, ‘I am emerging from the cessation of perception and feeling,’ or, ‘I have emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling,’ But previously his mind has been developed so that it leads to that state.”

For a monastic who has emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling, Noble Lady, which things arise first: bodily process, or speech process, or mental process?”
“For a monastic who is emerging from the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, first mental process arises, then bodily process arises, then speech process arises.”

“Having emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling, Noble Lady, how many contacts touch that monastic?”
“Having emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, three contacts touch that monastic: emptiness contact, desirelessness contact, signlessness contact.”

“For a monastic who has emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling, Noble Lady, what does his mind incline towards, what does it slope towards, what does it slant towards?”
“For a monastic who has emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling, friend Visākha, his mind inclines towards seclusion, it slopes towards seclusion, it slants towards seclusion.”

MN 77

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