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A nonpoint light source is one in which light emanates from diffuse sources, such as the Sun or a light bulb with a reflective cone surrounding it. When using a nonpoint light source, two shadows form behind an object with one darker than the other. All points on a nonpoint light source behave like point sources. Light rays do not reach some areas behind the object but reach other areas. The shadow that forms is darker in the middle and not as dark around the edges. The dark middle is called the umbra, and it is where no light reaches. The area that is not as dark is called the penumbra, and it is where some light reaches. The size of the nonpoint light source affects the size of the umbra and penumbra. When the size of the nonpoint source increases, the area of the umbra decreases, and the area of the penumbra increases. Increasing the distance between the object and nonpoint source results in the areas of both the umbra and penumbra decreasing.
Adjustable shadow size works only with shadows coming from a point source, such as a spotlight. If you were using directional or infinite lights, they would always make shadows the same size as the object casting them, regardless of position.
When the object is far from the point source, the light rays coming from the source do not spread much. As the object blocks light rays being emitted at smaller angles, a smaller, sharper shadow forms behind it.